We may distinguish the following series of stages: (I) ovum; (2) cleavage, leading to formation of a blastula; (3) formation of an inner mass or parenchyma, the future endoderm, by immigration or delamination, leading to the so-called parenchymula-stage; (4) formation of an archenteric cavity, the future coelenteron, by a splitting of the internal parenchyma, and of a blastopore, the future mouth, by perforation at one pole, leading to the gastrula-stage; (5) the outgrowth of tentacles round the mouth (blastopore), leading to the actinula-stage; and (6) the actinula becomes the polyp or medusa in the manner described elsewhere (see articles Hydrozoa, POLYP and Medusa).
If the germcells are differentiated, the offspring arises by syngamy or sexual union of the ordinary type between an ovum and spermatozoon, so-called fertilization of the ovum, or by parthenogenesis, i.e.
The ovum of Hydromedusae is usually one of a large number of odgonia, and grows at the expense of its sister-cells.
The cleavage of the ovum follows two types, both seen in Tubularia (Brauer ).
In the first, a cleavage follows each nuclear division; in the second, the nuclei multiply by division a number of times, and then the ovum divides into as many blastomeres as there are nuclei present.
Thus in Cunina octonaria, the ovum develops into an actinula which buds daughteractinulae; all of them, both parent and offspring, develop into medusae, so that there is no alternation of generations, but only larval multiplication.
In Cunina parasitica, however, the ovum develops into an actinula, which buds actinulae as before, but only the daughter-actinulae develop into medusae, while the original, parent-actinula dies off; here, therefore, larval budding has led to a true alternation of generations.
- The fertilized ovum gives rise to a parenchymula, with solid endoderm, which is set free as a free-swimming planula larva, in the manner already described (see Hydrozoa).
In fact, while holding firmly by the former, Bonnet more or less modified the latter in his later writings, and, at length, he admits that a " germ " need not be an actual miniature of the organism, hut that it may be merely an " original preformation " capable of producing the latter.4 But, thus defined, the germ is neither more nor less than the "particula genitalis" of Aristotle, or the "primordium vegetale" or " ovum " of Harvey; and the " evolution " of such a germ would not be distinguishable from " epigenesis."
Even in those cases where the cilia band, which is the product of the centrosome-like body or blepharoplast, enters the ovum, as in Zamia (c in fig.
Mosquitoes go through four phases: (1) ovum, (2) larva, (3) nympha, (4) complete insect.
Neither the rotation of the shell as a whole nor its helicoid spiral coiling is the immediate cause of the torsion of the body in the individual, for the direction of the torsion is indicated in the segmentation of the ovum, in which there is a complete A B From Lankester's Treatise on Zoology.
No other substance, at least, with which he experimented had a like effect, and it is possible that in the archegonium which contains the ovum malic acid is present.
Diameter), containing a fertilized ovum surrounded usually by many yolk-cells.
The ovum first divides into (a) a granular cell, and (b) a cell full of refringent spherules.
Here the two elements, ovum and yolk-cells, are surrounded by a shell of operculate or of spindle-capped types.
Each shell contains a single ovum and a mass of yolk-cells.
The egg consists of a fertilized ovum and a mass of yolk-cells.
Poulton, showed that the ovum of the platypus was large compared with that of other mammals, whilst W.
In 1703 Samuel Morland, in a paper read before the Royal Society, stated that the farina (pollen) is a congeries of seminal plants, one of which must be conveyed into every ovum or seed before it can become prolific. In this remarkable statement he seems to anticipate in part the discoveries afterwards made as to pollen tubes, and more particularly the peculiar views promulgated by Schleiden.
On examining more minutely the course of the development, it is found that the ovum goes through the usual process of cleavage, always total and regular in this group, and so gives rise to a hollow sphere or ovoid with the wall composed of a single layer of cells, and containing a spacious cavity, the blastocoele or segmentation-cavity.
During the childbearing period of life some of these will be nearing the ripe condition, and if one such be looked at it will be seen to contain one large cell, the ovum, surrounded by a mass of small cells forming the discus proligerus.
When the follicle bursts, as it does in time, the ovum escapes on to the surface of the ovary.
Eventually this bulging part is broken up into a series of small portions, each of which contains one germ cell or ovum, and gives rise to a Graafian follicle.
Hence, when he returns to organisms, it does not surprise us that he assigns to ova and spermatozoa cell-souls, to the impregnated ovum germ-soul, to plants tissue-souls, to animals nerve-souls; or that he regards man's body and soul as born together in the impregnated ovum, and gradually evolved from the bodies and souls of lower animals.
It appears to his imagination that the affinity of two atoms of hydrogen to one of oxygen, the attraction of the spermatozoon to the ovum, and the elective affinity of d pair of lovers are all alike due to sensation and will.
Malformations of the pelvis, accidental injuries and the diseases and displacements to which the uterus is liable, on the one hand; and, on the other, various morbid conditions of the ovum or placenta leading to the death of the foetus, are among the direct local causes.
This individuality is the result of the particular selection of qualities it receives from its parents, a selection that obviously differs in different cases, as, save in the case of "identical twins," which are supposed to be the product of a single fertilized ovum, no individual pair of brothers, or pair consisting of brother and sister, are alike.
The segmentation or cleavage of the ovum which follows ï¿½ upon fertilization terminates in the achievement of the blastula form, a minute sphere of cells surrounding a central cavity.
- Tentaculocyst and Marginal Lappets of (After Eimer.) The ovum undergoes total cleavage, giving rise to a bastula which forms a gastrula (fig.
During the growth of the ovum nourishment is supplied from the contents of the cells immediately surrounding the egg-cell, as in the development of the ovum of Pinus and other conifers.
Before fertilization a neck-canal cell is formed by the division of the ovum-nucleus.
After the body of a spermatozoid has coalesced with the egg-nucleus the latter divides repeatedly and forms a mass of tissue which grows more vigorously in the lower part of the fertilized ovum, and extends upwards towards the apex of the ovum as a peripheral layer of parenchyma surrounding a central space.
Surrounding the pitted wall of the ovum there is a definite layer of large cells, no doubt representing a tapetum, which, as in cycads and conifers, plays an important part in nourishing the growing egg-cell.
After fertilization the ovum-nucleus divides and cell-formation proceeds rapidly, especially in the lower part of the ovum, in which the cotyledon and axis of the embryo are differentiated; the long, tangled suspensor of the cycadean embryo is not found in Ginkgo.
Cupressineae) or separated from one another by a few cells of the prothallus, each ovum being immediately surrounded by a layer of cells distinguished by their granular contents and large nuclei.
The result of this is the production of four nuclei, which eventually take up a position at the bottom of the ovum and become separated from one another by vertical cellwalls; these nuclei divide again, and finally three tiers of cells are produced, four in each tier.
Regarding the Echinoderms as a whole in the light of the foregoing account, we may give the following analytic summary of the characters that distinguish them from other coelomate animals: They live in salt or brackish water; a primitive bilateral symmetry is still manifest in the right and left divisions of the coelom; the middle coelomic cavities are primitively transformed into two hydrocoels communicating with the exterior indirectly through a duct or ducts of the anterior coelom; stereom, composed of crystalline carbonate of lime, is, with few exceptions, deposited by special amoebocytes in the meshes of a mesodermal stroma, chiefly in the integument; reproductive cells are derived from the endothelium, apparently of the anterior coelom; total segmentation of the ovum produces a coeloblastula and gastrula by invagination; mesenchyme is formed in the segmentation cavity by migration of cells, chiefly from the hypoblast.
As the result of fertilization of an ovum produced by this, the fern plant (sporophyte, asexual generation) originates; from it spores are ultimately set free,.
A central series of cells can be distinguished in it, the lowest of which is the ovum; above this come a, Equisetum.
When the archegonium has opened by the separation of the terminal cells of the neck, the disintegration of the canal cells leaves a tubular passage, at the base of which is the ovum (fig.
The necks of the latter are short, the central series of cells consisting of ovum, ventral canal cell and one or two canal cells.
The surface of the prothallus, which is exposed when the thick wall of the spore is ruptured, may produce a few rhizoids; upon it the archegonia, consisting of a short neck and the central series of ovum, ventral canal cell and canal cell, arise (fig.
A, Unopened archegonium; o, ovum; ventral canal cell; k', nec k-canal-cell.
It may be regarded as derived from a wholly dependent sporogonium not unlike that of some of the simpler Bryophyta; the latter are assumed to have arisen from primitive Algal forms, in which, as the first step in the interpolation of the second generation in the life cycle, the fertilized ovum gave rise to a group of swarm spores, each of which developed into a new sexual plant.
On this view the origin of the sporophyte is looked for in the gradual development of sterile tissue in the generation arising from the fertilized ovum, and a consequent postponement of spore-formation.
They, however, differ in the most striking manner in the structure of the ovum and the early development.
The unsegmented uterine ovum of P. novae zealandiae measures I.
In correspondence with these differences in the ovum there are differences in the early development, though the later stages are closely similar.
It will thus be seen that the Malay species, while resembling the neotropical species in the generative organs, differ from these in many features of the legs and feet, in the important characters furnished by the site and structure of the ovum, and by their early development.
Development of an ovum without fertilization.