The result of fertilization is the development of the ovule into the seed.
The pistil consists of a single carpel with its ovary, style, stigma and solitary ovule or twin ovules.
These, as in Gymnosperms, are of two kinds, microspores or pollen-grains, borne in the stamens (or microsporophylls) and megaspores, in which the egg-cell is developed, contained in the ovule, which is borne enclosed in the carpel (or megasporophyll).
An ovule consists of a conical nucellus surrounded by a single integument.
Part of Ovule in longitudinal section.
A young ovule consists of a conical nucellus surrounded by a single integument terminating as a two-lipped micropyle.
The stalk of an ovule, considerably reduced in normal flowers and much larger in some abnormal flowers, is homologous with a leaf-stalk, with which it agrees in the structure and number of vascular bundles.
Secretory sacs occur abundantly in the leaflamina, where they appear as short lines between the veins; they are abundant also in the cortex and pith of the shoot, in the fleshy integument of the ovule, and elsewhere.
Apex of Ovule, and Pollen-grain.
Abies), on each side of which is situated an inverted ovule, consisting of a nucellus surrounded by a single integument.
The female flowers of the Taxaceae assume another form; in Microcachrys (Tasmania) the reproductive structures are spirally disposed, and form small globular cones made up of red fleshy scales, to each of which is attached a single ovule enclosed by an integument and partially invested by an arillus; in Dacrydium the carpellary leaves are very similar to the foliage leaves - each bears one ovule with two integuments, the outer of which constitutes an arillus.
One argument that has been adduced in support of the axillary bud theory is derived from the Palaeozoic type Cordaites, in which each ovule occurs en an axis borne in the axil of a bract.
The ovule is usually surrounded by one integument, which projects beyond the tip of the nucellus as a wide-open lobed funnel, which at the time of pollination folds inwards, and so assists in bringing the pollen-grains on to the nucellus.
The female flower is enveloped in a closely fitting sac-like investment, which must be regarded as a perianth; within this is an orthotropous ovule surrounded by a single integument prolonged upwards as a beak-like micropyle.
In function the perianth may be compared with a unilocular ovary containing a single ovule; the projecting integument, which at the time of pollination secretes a drop of liquid, serves the same purpose as the style and stigma of an angiosperm.
Each cone consists of an axis, on which numerous broad and thin bracts are arranged in regular rows; in the axil of each bract occurs a single flower; a male flower is enclosed by two opposite pairs of leaves, forming a perianth surrounding a central sterile ovule encircled by a ring of stamens united below, but free distally as short filaments, each of which terminates in a trilocular anther.
The integument of the sterile ovule is prolonged above the nucellus as a spirally-twisted tube expanded at its apex into a flat stigma-like organ.
A complete and functional female flower consists of a single ovule with two integuments, the inner of which is prolonged into a narrow tubular micropyle, like that in the flower of Gnetum.
Under natural circumstances wheat is selffertilized: that is to say, the pollen of any given flower impregnates the stigma and ovule of the same flower; the glumes and coverings of the flower being tightly pressed round the stamens and stigmas in such a way as to prevent the access of insects and to ensure the deposit of the pollen upon the stigmas of the same flower.
- Vertical section of the ovule of the Scotch Fir (Pinus sylvestris) in May of the second year, showing the enlarged embryo-sac b, full of endosperm cells, and pollen-tubes c, penetrating the summit of the nucellus after the pollen has entered the large micropyle.
As the seed develops from the ovule which has been fertilized by the pollen, the essential structures for seed-production are two, viz.
The pollen-bearer or stamen and the ovule-bearer or car pel.
These are with few exceptions foliar structures, known in comparative morphology as sporophylls, because they bear the spores, namely, the microspores or pollen-grains which are developed in the microsporangia or pollen-sacs, and the megaspore, which is contained in the ovule or megasporangium.
The calyx, petals and stamens spring from above the ovary (o) in which two chambers are shown each with a pendulous ovule; d, disc between the stamens and stigmas.
F, Funicle or or may be confined to the base or stalk of ovule (ov); pl, plaapex only.
The ovule is attached to the placenta, and destined to become the seed.
In Cycas the altered leaf, upon the margin of which the ovule is produced, and the peltate scales, from which they are pendulous in Zamia, are regarded by all botanists as carpellary leaves.
The part by which the ovule is attached to the placenta or cord is its base or hilum, the opposite extremity being its apex.
The ovule is sometimes embedded in the placenta, as in Hydnora.
- Orthotropous ovule of Polygonum in section, showing the embryo-sac s, in the nucellus n, the different ovular coverings, the base of the nucellus or chalaza ch, and the apex of the ovule with its micropyle m.
- Vertical section of the ovule of the Austrian Pine (Pinus austriaca), showing the nucellus a, consisting of delicate cellular tissue containing deep in its substance an embryo-sac b.
The ovule appears at first as a small cellular projection from the placenta.
This nucellus may remain naked, and alone form the ovule, as in some orders of parasitic plants such as Balanophoraceae, Santalaceae, &c.; but in most plants it becomes surrounded by certain coverings or integuments during its development.
When the ovule is so developed that the chalaza is at the hilum (next the placenta), and the micropyle is at the opposite extremity, there being a short funicle, the ovule is orthotropous.
I12), Cistaceae, and most gymnosperms. In such an ovule a straight line drawn from the hilum to the micropyle passes along the axis of the ovule.
Serere, to sow), the fertilized ovule of plants.
After fertilization the female cell, now called the oospore, divides and part of it develops into the embryo (new sporophyte), which remains dormant for a time still protected by the ovule which has developed to become the seed.
The ovule is not enclosed in an ovary, and the usually solitary macrospore becomes filled with a prothallus, in the upper part of which are formed several rudimentary archegonia.
The male gametophyte is sometimes represented by a transitory prothallial cell;, the two male cells are carried passively down into the ovary and into the mouth of the ovule by means of the pollen-tube.
The ovule develops into the seed; and the gynaeceum and even more remote parts of the flower, develop into the fruit.
Each carpel becomes divided by a median constriction in four portions, each containing one ovule; the style springs from the centre of the group of four divisions.
1) having a thin outer skin (epicarp) enclosing the flesh of the peach (mesocarp), the inner layers of the carpel becoming woody to form the stone, while the ovule ripens into the kernel or seed.
The eggs are deposited in the ovary-wall, usually just below an ovule; after each deposition the moth runs to the top of the pistil and thrusts some pollen into the opening of the stigma.
The solitary ovule springs erect from the base of the ovarian cavity.
In the male flowers, which are numerous, the stamens are sixteen in number and arranged in pairs; the female flowers are solitary, with traces of stamens, and a smooth ovary with one ovule in each of the eight cells - the ovary is surmounted by four styles, which are hairy at the base.
The general view was, that the embryo originated in the ovule, which was in some obscure manner fertilized by the pollen.
In other species the infection occurs through the style of the flower, but the fungus after reaching the ovule develops no further during that year but remains dormant in the embryo of the seed.
The development of the ovule, which represents the embryo- Gymnosperms; when mature it consists of one or two sac. coats surrounding the central nucellus, except at the apex where an opening, the micropyle, is left.
The developing embryo at the end of the suspensor grows out to a varying extent into the forming endosperm, from which by surface absorption it derives good material for growth; at the same time the suspensor plays a direct part as a carrier of nutrition, and may even develop, where perhaps no endosperm is formed, special absorptive "suspensor roots" which invest the developing embryo, or pass out into the body and coats of the ovule, or even into the placenta.
Dorsiventrality is also clearly derived from radial construction, and anatropy of the ovule has followed atropy.
Brown's views as to the structure of the unimpregnated ovule (with the introduction of the term "sac embryonnaire"); and in that it shows how nearly Brongniart anticipated Amici's subsequent (1846) discovery of the entrance of the pollen-tube into the micropyle, fertilizing the female cell which then develops into the embryo.
The ovary is small, rounded to elliptical, and one-celled, and contains a single slightly bent ovule sessile on the ventral suture (that is, springing from the back of the ovary); the micropyle points downwards.
On the other, posterior, side of the grain is a more or less evident, sometimes punctiform, sometimes elongated or linear mark, the hilum, the place where the ovule was fastened to the wall of the ovary.
The endosperm detached from a large Ginkgo ovule after fertilization bears a close resemblance to that of a cycad; the apex is occupied by a depression, on the floor of which two small holes mark the position of the archegonia, and the outgrowth from the megaspore apex projects from the centre as a short peg.
Each ovule is enclosed at the base by an envelope or collar homologous with the lamina of a leaf; the fleshy and hard coats of the nucellus constitute a single integument.
The ovule is usually contained in an ovary, and all plants in which the ovule is so enclosed are termed angiospermous; but in Coniferae and Cycadaceae it has no proper ovarian covering, and is called naked, these orders being denominated gymnospermous.