Cromwell was outmanoeuvred and in a perilous situation, completely cut off from England and from his supplies except from the sea.
Meanwhile, in the Missouri theatre, the Federal general Curtis, outnumbered and outmanoeuvred by the forces of Price and Van Dorn, fought, and by his magnificent tenacity won, the battle of Pea Ridge (March 7-8), which put an end to the war in this quarter.
Hooker's operations began well, Lee was outmanoeuvred and threatened in flank and rear, but the Federals were in the end involved in the confused and disastrous battle of Chancellorsville (q.v.).
He reached Ilerda (Lerida) on the 23rd of June and, after extricating his army from a perilous situation, outmanoeuvred Pompey's lieutenants and received their submission on the 2nd of August.