The principal reasons for the general decrease are the fall in prices through foreign competition and the closing of certain markets, the diseases of plants and the increased outlay required to combat them, and the growth of State and local taxation.
The public worship endowment fund has relieved the state exchequer of the cost of public worship; has gradually furnished to the poorer parish priests an addition to their stipends, raising them to 32 per annum, with the prospect of further raising them to 40; and has contributed to the outlay incurred by the communes for religious purposes.
From 1885-1886 onwards, outlay on public works, military and colonial expenditure, and especially the commercial and financial crises, contributed to produce annual deficits; but owing to drastic reforms introduced in 1894-1895 and to careful management the year 1898-1899 marked a return of surpluses (nearly 1,306,400).
Within ten years this category of outlay had increased from 8,000,000 to 28,800,000.
Economy in capital outlay and cheapness in construction is indeed the characteristic generally associated with light railways by the public, and implicitly attached to them by parliament in the act of 1896, and any simplifications of the engineering or mechanical features they may exhibit compared with the standard railways of the country are mainly, if not entirely, due to the desire to keep down their expenses.
The task was no pleasant one, for he had to agree to economies where he considered that more outlay was needed, and he had to disappoint the hopes of the many officers who were left unemployed by the peace.
If the sole purpose for which an animal is reared is to prepare it for the block - and this is the case with steers amongst cattle and with wethers amongst sheep - the sooner it is ready for slaughter the less should be the outlay involved.
On farms of moderate size it is usual to hire steam tackle as required, the outlay involved in the purchase of a set being justifiable only in the case of estates or of very big farms where, when not engaged in ploughing, or in cultivating, or in other work upon the land, the steam-engine may be employed in threshing, chaff-cutting, sawing and many similar operations which require power.
It is probable that up to 1875, at least, there had been a larger outlay of labour, material and money, in reducing, levelling and reclaiming territory, and in straightening and widening thoroughfares 1 in Boston, than had been expended for the same purposes in all the other chief cities of the United States together.
In the case of proposed drainage improvements, notice in writing must be given to the landlord, who may then execute the improvements himself and charge the tenant with interest not exceeding 5% per annum on the outlay, or such annual instalments, payable for a period of twenty-five years, and recoverable as rent, as will repay the outlay, with interest at the rate of 3% a year.
The old system of locating immigrants in colonies, or colonial nuclei, which involved an enormous outlay of money with but slight benefit to the country, has been superseded by a system of locating the immigrants on the large plantations under formal contracts.
The richer veins had evidently been long ago worked out, and nothing of sufficient value to justify further outlay was discovered.
His little account books of income and outlay, with every item entered down to a few hours before his death, are accurate and neat enough to have satisfied an ancient Roman householder.
Railways.It is easy to understand that an enterprise like railway construction, requiring a great outlay of capital with returns long delayed, did not at first commend itself to the Japanese, who were almost entirely ignorant of co-operation as a factor of business organization.
His request for a surveyor to check the outlay on the public works is refused on the ground that the emperor has hardly enough surveyors for the works he is carrying on in Rome.
In 1870-1871, when the province was an independent state and possessed neither railways nor diamond mines, the revenue was £78,000 and the expenditure £71,000; in1884-1885the revenue had risen to £228,000 and the expenditure to 229,000; in 1898, the last full year of the republican administration, the figures were: revenue, including railway profits, £799,000; expenditure, including outlay on new railways, £956,000.
A commission was appointed to consider the best modes of retrenchment, and the outlay on shows and games was cut down to the lowest possible point.
The cost of planting and the outlay for manuring and weeding during the years of maturity of the crop, are higher in the Midlands and the yield was estimated by Ellmore at 6 to 10 tons per acre, green, worth from £3, ios.
Per acre for the first year and the outlay for the next two years at £7, 5s.
The outlay on trust property in that period was more than fifteen millions.
The outlay on the barrage between 1883 and 1891 amounted to about £460,000.
Such are the general statistics of outlay, revenue and irrigated area up to the end of 1896-1897.
The canal system of Orissa was never expected to be remunerative, since in five years out of six the local rainfall is sufficient for the rice crop. In1878-1879the area irrigated was 111,250 acres, and the outlay up to date was Rx.1,750,000.
In1900-1901the area was 203,540 acres, the highest ever attained, and the capital outlay amounted to Rx.2,623,703.
While emphatically asserting that irrigation alone could never prevent famine, they recommended an outlay of £45,000,000 spread over a period of 25 years.
The expedition was undertaken on his suggestion and its success was largely due to his energy and enthusiasm; in September 1749 £ 183,650 (English) in coin was brought to Boston to cover the outlay of Massachusetts, and largely through Shirley's influence this was used for the redemption of outstanding paper money, thus re-establishing the finances of the province, a subject to which Shirley had given much attention.
In 1840 the first stone of Pentonville prison was laid, and after three years of considerable outlay, its cells, Sao in number, were occupied on the solitary, or more exactly the separate system - the latter being somewhat less rigorous and irksome in its restraints.
The "cell" scheme of individual separation holds the ground, and countries which can afford the outlay have built or are building cellular prisons.
Figures are not available for any exact comparison of outlay and return in other countries, but the earnings in European countries generally run to about half the expenditure.
The white farmer gives an outlay in labour and fertilizers on his farm greater by 61.4% than the black, gathers a produce greater by 22.5%, and possesses a farm of a value 53.5% greater (Census, 1900) .
The new prince, who was compelled to purchase his elevation with a heavy bribe, proceeded to the country which he was selected to govern, and of the language of which he was in nearly every case totally ignorant, accompanied by a horde of needy hangers-on; he and his acolytes counted on recouping themselves in as short a time as possible for their initial outlay and in laying by a sufficiency to live on after the termination of the prince's brief authority.
The widening sphere of state activity, so marked a characteristic of modern civilization, involves outlay for what may be best described as " developmental " services.
The first problem on this side of expenditure is the due balancing of outlay by income.
As yet no more definite principle has been discovered than the somewhat obvious one of measuring the proposed items of outlay (I) against each other, (2) against the sacrifice that additional taxation involves.
Just application of the outlay of the state, so that no class receives undue advantage, and the use of public funds for " reproductive," in preference to " unproductive " objects, are evident general principles whose difficulty lies in their application to the circumstances of each particular case.
All outlay by the state is brought into due co-ordination, and it becomes possible for constitutional government to supervise and direct it.
Financial adjustment implies the conception of a balance, and this should be found in the relation of outlay and income.
Even friends of the railway presaged that such outlay could not by any possibility be remunerative; but the contrary became evident from the moment the line was opened on the 17th of September 1838.
In 1890 a Russian company started a match factory near Teheran with an initial outlay, it is said, of about 20,000, but could not successfully compete with Austrian and Swedish matches and ceased operations very soon.
A few mines are worked by natives in a primitive, systemless manner, and without any great outlay of capital.
Repairs on the buildings left standing on this street alone involved an outlay of $5,000,000.
From first to last the outlay on the harbour has exceeded £i,50o,000.
On the other hand, some years ago in the United Kingdom, before the high expenditure on army and navy began, and before the South African war of 1899-1902, it is probable that with an outlay of less than roo,000,000 by the central government, the proportion of this outlay to the aggregate income of the people was not higher than onefourteenth.
Owing to the costliness of the undertaking, and the death of the earl in 181 9, the works were suspended after an outlay of L10o,000, but his successor completed the scheme on a reduced scale at an expense of another X1 00,000.
This system shows a greater economy in the cost of carbonizing the coal, but the large outlay and the wear and tear of the mechanical appliances involved have so far prevented its very general adoption.