In Dacryomyces only two outgrowths and two spores are produced.
1) as dorsal outgrowths of the collar.
In some hydroids the founder-polyp, developed from a planula after fixation, throws out numerous outgrowths from the base to form the hydrorhiza; these outgrowths may be radially arranged so as to form by contact or coalescence a flat plate.
It would be necessary to regard this structure as a secondary extension of the endoderm in the tentacle-web, on Allman's theory, or between the outgrowths of the hydrorhiza, on Mechnikov's hypothesis.
Eight very broad radial canals; ex-umbrella often provided with lateral outgrowths; tentacles differing in size, but in a single row.
Phytophthora in potatoes., If, on the other hand, the irritating agent is local in its action, causing only a few cells to react, we have the various pimples, excrescences, outgrowths, &c., exhibited in such cases as Ustilago Maydis on the maize, various galls, witchesbrooms, &c.
Excrescences.Outgrowths, more or less abnormal in character, are frequent signs of diseased organs.
There is a class of gall-like or pustular outgrowths for which no external cause has as yet been determined, and which are therefore often ascribed to internal causes of disease.
Such are the cork-warts on elms, maples, &c., and the class of outgrowths known as Intumescences.
Turning now to outgrowths of a woody nature, the well-known burrs or knaurs, so common on elms and other trees are cases in point.
There are many Varieties of burrs, though all woody outgrowths of old trees are not to be confounded with them, e.g.
Other common modifications arise from the union of certain parts of the perianth to each other, and from the varied and often very remarkable outgrowths from the lip. These modifications are associated with the structure and habits of insects and their visits to the flowers.
In other Polychaetes one or more pairs of similar outgrowths are glandular.
The Oligochaeta contrast with the Polychaeta in the general presence of outgrowths of the septa in the genital segments, which are either close to, or actually involve, the gonads, and into which may also open the funnels of the gonad ducts.
It was in the year 1886 that Hellriegel and Wilfarth first published in Germany the results of investigations in which they demonstrated that, through the agency of micro-organisms dwelling in nodular outgrowths on the roots of ordinary leguminous plants, the latter are enabled to assimilate the free nitrogen of the air.
The sucker-bearing processes of Pneumonoderma are outgrowths of the proboscis.
As in some Pectinibranchia, the free margin of the mantle-skirt is frequently reflected over the shell when a shell exists; and, as in some Pectinibranchia, broad lateral outgrowths of the foot (parapodia) are often developed which may be thrown over the shell or naked dorsal surface of the body.
The possession of a variable number of excretory tubes (Malpighian tubes), which are developed as outgrowths of the hind-gut and pour their excretion into the intestine,is also a distinctive character of the Hexapoda.
In addition to the wings there are smaller dorsal outgrowths of the thorax in many insects.
A remarkable fossil from the Scottish Coal-measures (Lithomantis) had apparently small wing-like structures on the prothorax, and in allied genera small veined outgrowths - like tracheal gills - occurred on the abdominal segments.
Insect wings are specialized outgrowths of certain thoracic segments, and are quite unrepresented in any other class of Arthropods.
The origin of insect wings remains, therefore, a mystery, deepened by the difficulty of imagining any probable use for thoracic outgrowths, comparable to the wingrudiments of the Exopterygota, in the early stages of their evolution.
In its simplest form this is a hollow flask-shaped horny piece, consisting of a dilated basal portion and a terminal spiniform portion with an orifice at the apex; but its structure is frequently complicated by accessory processes and outgrowths which aid copulation and serve to protect the delicate point from injury.
Two lateral outgrowths of the foremost portion of the oesophagus, afterwards becoming constricted off, as well as two ingrowths from the epiblast, contribute towards its formation, at least as far as both Metaand Heteronemertines are concerned.
No other intermediate stages have as yet been noticed between this arrangement and that of the Heteronemertini, in which a separate posterior brain-lobe receives a similar ciliated canal, and in which the oesophageal outgrowths have made their appearance and are coalesced with the nerve-tissue in the organ of the adult animal.
These posterior brain-lobes, which in all Heteronemertines are in direct continuity of tissue with the upper pair of principal lobes, cease to have this intimate connexion in the Metanemertini; and, although still constituted of (I) a ciliated duct, opening out externally, (2) nervous tissue surrounding it, and (3) histological elements distinctly different from the nervous, and most probably directly derived from the oesophageal outgrowths, they are nevertheless here no longer constantly situated behind the upper brain-lobes and directly connected with them, but are found sometimes behind, sometimes beside and sometimes before the brain-lobes.
Thus in borage it is rotate, tubular in comfrey, funnel-shaped in hounds-tongue, and salvershaped in alkanet (Anchusa); the throat is often closed by scale-like outgrowths from the corolla, forming the so-called corona.
In the case of the peach this peculiarity is in some way connected with the presence of small glandular outgrowths on the stalk, or at the base of the leaf.
In one family, the Ptychoderidae, the medullary tube of the collar is connected at intermediate points with the epidermis by means of a variable number of unpaired outgrowths from its dorsal wall, generally containing an axial lumen derived from and in continuity with the central canal.
These bodies had been erroneously supposed by Newport (12) and other observers to be glandular outgrowths of the alimentary canal.
In length and i in breadth, with a pair of tendinous outgrowths standing out from it at right angles on each side.
In the Cirripedia, however, they are vascular processes from the inner surface of the mantle or shell-fold, and in some Ostracoda they are outgrowths from the sides of the body.
The sixteen tentacles of the scyphistoma disappear, and in the place of the four perradial and four interradial tentacles, the eight tentaculocysts of the adult are formed as outgrowths of the subumbral margin, independently of the tentacles of the scyphistoma (Friedemann).
Their presence is due to lateral outgrowths of crystals shooting from the side of a growing stalactite, or to deflections caused by currents of air, or to the existence of a diminutive fungus peculiar to the locality and designated from its habitat Mucor stalactitis.
Another explanation is based on the late appearance of the petals in the floral development and their origin from the backs of the primordia of the stamens; it is then assumed that three alternating whorls only are present, namely, sepals, stamens bearing petal-like dorsal outgrowths, and carpels.
Pedicles arise secondary outgrowths, at first covered with skin, which (owing to the growth of a ring of bone at the base arresting the flow of blood) eventually dries up and leaves bare bone incapable of further growth.
Special outgrowths, arils, of the seed-coat are of frequent occurrence.
Leaves are produced as lateral outgrowths of the stem in definite succession below the apex.
In the formation of sporangia two cells fuse together by means of outgrowths, in a manner very similar to that of Spirogyra; sometimes, however, the wall between two cells merely breaks down.
The form of the fruit body, the difference and the nature of special outgrowths upon it - the appendages - are characteristic of the various genera.
This very large group of plants is characterized by the possession of a special type of conidiophore - the basidium, which gives its name to the group. The basidium is a unicellular or multicellular structure from which four basidiospores arise as outgrowths; it starts asa binucleate structure, but soon, like the ascus, becomes uninucleate by the fusion of the two nuclei.
The green (or blue-green) cells were termed gonidia by Wallroth, who looked upon them as asexual reproductive cells, but when it was later realized that they were not reproductive elements they were considered as mere outgrowths of the hyphae of the thallus which had developed chlorophyll.