The outcrop ploration.
Veins and flat deposits below the general level Boring of the country; or the outcrop lies beyond the limits of the property or under water or water-bearing formations, or is covered by quicksand, or is deeply buried.
In mines that are worked from the outcrop by adits or day levels traction by locomotives driven by steam, compressed air or electricity is used to some extent.
If the workable areas are poor, and appear only at long intervals along the outcrop, the chances of discovering richer areas by a shaft are very small.
Below the oxidized outcrop the vein is often increased in value by secondary enrichment, sometimes to a depth of several hundred feet.
A drift or entry is a horizontal passageway starting from the outcrop and following the deposit.
In the early days of coal-mining, open working, or quarrying from the outcrop of the seams, was practised to a considerable extent; but there are now few if any places in England where this can be done.
The Thanet beds resting on chalk form a narrow outcrop rising into cliffs at Pegwell Bay and Reculver, and consist (1) of a constant base bed of clayey greenish sand, seldom more than 5 ft.
Such a change is very common on the outcrop of mineral veins, forming what miners call "gozzan."
To the south-east of this region a narrow outcrop of Upper Llandovery, Wenlock and Ludlow sandstones and mudstones follows, uncomformably overlying the Llandeilo and Bala rocks, and dipping conformably under the Old Red Sandstone; they extend from Newbridge-on-Wye and Builth through Llangammarch (where there are mineral springs) towards Llandovery, while a tongue of Ludlow rocks brought up by faulting extends from Erwood on the Wye for 8 m.
Beneath this Chul formation the older beds of the outer and Turkestan ranges dip and pass to an irregular outcrop near the banks of the Oxus.
The table on p. 660 contains the names that have been applied to the subdivisions of the Cambrian strata in the areas of outcrop in Wales and England; at the same time it indicates approximately their relative position in the system.
The regular form of the Himalaya, constituting an arc of a true circle, appears to indicate that the whole chain has been pushed forward as one mass upon a gigantic thrust-plane; but, if so, the dip of the plane must be low, for a line drawn along the southern foot of the Himalaya would coincide with the outcrop of a plane inclined to the surface at an angle of about 14°.
Shipton leaned to his right and began to chip away at a large outcrop of ice directly above Dean, laughing as a loosened piece tumbled downward, striking Dean's exposed head, nearly knocking him senseless.
The difference in level between the outcrop of the assumed eastern intake and of the wells is often so small, in comparison with their distance apart, that the friction would completely sop up the whole of the available hydrostatic head.
It should be noted that the oxidation of sulphur itself by atmospheric influence may give rise to sulphuric acid, which in the presence of limestone will form gypsum: thus the sulphur-deposits of Sicily suffer alteration of this kind, and have their outcrop marked by a pale earthy gypseous rock called briscale.
Fragments of coal, or soil stained black with coal, will be found near the outcrop tif coal beds.
By tracing such indications up the stream or up the hillside the outcrop may sometimes be found, or at least approximately located.
The outcrop of a metalliferous vein frequently manifests itself as a line of rocks stained with oxide of iron, often honeycombed and porous, the " gossan " or " eisen-hut," the iron oxide of which results from the decomposition of the pyrites, usually present as a constituent of such veins.
The Black Reef series of quartzites and conglomerates and dolomite form a narrow outcrop resting unconformably upon the last-mentioned system.
By sinking additional pits or by extending the costeaning trenches and uncovering the outcrop of the deposit more fully it is sometimes possible to obtain all the information required for the most extensive and important mining operations.
Even when the outcrop is oxidized, and Surface the mineral character and richness of the deposit is Explora- altered thereby, it is possible to determine variations tion.
In thickness and the extent and distribution of the rich and barren areas by outcrop measurements.
If the deposit shows great variations in thickness in its outcrop along the surface it is probable that a drift or a slope would show the same thing in depth.
For example, the deposit does not outcrop as in the case of blind.
If the outcrop of the vein or bed is accessible the shaft may be inclined and sunk to follow the deposit.
When the deposit lying below the surface is horizontal, or nearly so, or when the outcrop of an inclined deposit is not accessible, a vertical shaft will be necessary.
I bore is commenced at the dip, and reaches a seam of coal A, at 40 fathoms; at this depth it is considered proper to remove nearer to the outcrop so that lower strata may be bored into at a less depth, and a second bore is commenced.
This derangement being carefully noted, another bore to the outcrop on the same principle is put down for the purpose of proving the seam C; the nature of the strata at first is found to agree with the latter part of that bored through in No.
The evidence therefore of these bores (3 and 4) indicates some material derangement, which is then proved by other bores, either towards the dip or the outcrop, according to the judgment of the borer, so as to ascertain the best position for sinking pits.
(For the methods of boring see Boring.) The working of coal may be conducted either by means of levels or galleries driven from the outcrop in a valley, or by shafts or pits sunk from the surface.
The Dwyka Conglomerate forms a narrow outcrop in the north-west, and is known from boreholes to extend over large areas beneath the Ecca Shales and to rest directly on rocks of older age.
To the south the London basin is succeeded by the North Downs, an elevated ridge of country consisting of an outcrop of chalk which extends from Westerham to Folkestone with an irregular breadth generally of 3 to 6 miles, but expanding to nearly 12 miles at Dartford and Gravesend and also to the north of Folkestone.
After dipping below the London Clay at Canterbury, it sends out an outcrop which forms the greater part of Thanet.
This is succeeded by an outcrop of the Lower Greensand - including the Folkestone, Sandgate and Hythe beds with the thin Atherfield Clay at the base - which extends across the country from west to east with a breadth of from 2 to 7 m., and rises into the picturesque elevations of the Ragstone hills.
During the heroic Boleslawic period there had been a premature outcrop of civil life.
Farther north in Montana, beyond the gorge of the Missouri river, the structure of the Front Range is altogether different; it is here the carved residual of a great mass of moderately bent Palaeozoic strata, overthrust eastward upon the Mesozoic strata of the plains; instead of exposing the oldest rocks along the axis and the youngest rocks low down on the flanks, the younger rocks of the northern range follow its axis, and the oldest rocks outcrop along its eastern flanks, where they override the much younger strata of the plains; the harder strata, instead of lapping on the mountain flanks in great slab-like masses, as in the Bighorns, form out-facing scarps, which retreat into the mountain interior where they are cut down by outfiowing streams.
By the operation of meteoric agencies, iron pyrites readily pass into limonite often with retention of external form; and the masses of "gozzan" or "gossan" on the outcrop of certain mineral-veins consist of rusty iron ore formed in this way, and associated with cellular quartz.
There are also limestone and fireclay, firebrick and cement works, chiefly on the northern outcrop of the carboniferous limestone, as at Abernant in the Vale of Neath and at Penwyllt.
Although the rocks throughout the Southern Uplands have a persistent northeasterly and south-westerly strike, and though this trend is apparent in the bands of more rugged hills that mark the outcrop of hard grits and greywackes, nevertheless geological structure has been much less effective in determining the lines of ridge and valley than in the Highlands.
The Ridge, famous as the British base during the siege of Delhi during the Mutiny, in 1857, is a last outcrop of the Aravalli Hills which rises in a steep escarpment some 60 ft.
The coal-fields on the eastern side, from the Tyne nearly to the Trent, are sharply marked off on the east by the outcrop of Permian dolomite or Magnesian limestone, which forms a low terrace dipping towards the east under more recent rocks, and in many places giving rise to an escarpment facing westward towards the gentle slope of the Pennine dales.
One such outcrop of Carboniferous Limestone in the south forms the Mendip Hills; another of the Coal Measures increases the importance of Bristol, where it stands at the head of navigation on the southern Avon.
The midland plain curves northward between the outcrop of the Dolomite on the west and the Oolitic heights on the east.
The outcrop of the Lias, mainly clay with thin limestones and ironstones, runs in an almost continuous band across the country from Lyme Regis, through Bath, Cheltenham, near Leicester, and Lincoln to Redcar in Yorkshire.
Along the margin of this great deposit, on the Mississippi river below St Louis and along the northern shore of the Missouri near its mouth, is an outcrop of Silurian.
Gold is obtained from mines on the Madibi Reserve, near Mafeking - the outcrop extending about 30 m.
Into the Lower Greensand formation, the outcrop of which, emerging on the south-eastern shore of the Wash, passes south-westwards, and in Bedfordshire attains a thickness exceeding 250 ft.
The outcrop of beds at the surface is commonly the truncation of these curves.
Other uses, more or less technical, of the word are, in leather-dressing, for the whole untrimmed hide; in mining and geology, for the "outcrop" or appearance at the surface of a vein or stratum and, particularly in tin mining, of the best part of the ore produced after dressing.
The Cainozoic system includes at Table Cape an outcrop of marine beds probably of Oligocene age.