Havet (P. ris, 1889); Die Urkunden Kaisers Ottos III., edited by Th.
(Hanover and Berlin, 1826 fol.); Die Urkunden des Kaisers Ottos I., edited by Th.
Fischer, Ober Ottos I.
Wcihrend der Regierung Ottos III., Inaug.
P. Wimmer, Kaiserin Adelheid, Gemahlin Ottos I.
Moltmann, Theophano die Gemahlin Ottos II.
In ihrer Bedeutung fiir die Politik Ottos I.
And Ottos II.
Matthaei, Die Handel Ottos II.
This happened in 938, and in 939 a second rebellion, led by Ottos brother Henry, was supported by the duke of Franconia and by Giselbert, duke of Lorraine.
The duchy of Swabia was also brought intc Ottos family by the marriage of his son Ludolf with Dukc Hermanns daughter, and by these means Otto made himself master of the kingdom.
In the midst of these internal troubles Otto was attackec by the French king, Louis IV., who sought to regain Lorraine Ottos However, the German king was soon able to turn hi~
Ottos subsequeni aod with interventions in the affairs of France were mainl) e avs.
Much more important than Ottos doings in France weri his wars with his northern and eastern neighbors.
But Ottos son, Ludolf, who had received a promise of the German crown, saw his rights threatened by this marriage.
After a fierce and obstinate fight, in which Conrad and many other nobles fell the Germans were victorious; the Magyars were even mon thoroughly scourged than in the battles in which Ottos fathe had given them their first real check.
In 966 he wa.s again in Italy, where he reOtto mained six years, exercising to the full his imperial ~ rights in regard to the papacy, but occupied mainly in an attempt to make himself master of the southern, as well as of the northern half of the peninsula, By far the most important act of Ottos eventful life was his assumption of the Lombard and the imperial crowns.
There are signs that during Ottos reign they began to have a distinct consciousness of national life, their use of the word deutsch to indicate the whole people being one of these symptoms. Their common sufferings, struggles and triumphs, however, account far more readily for this feeling than the supposition that they were elated by their king undertaking obligations which took him for years together away from his native land.
Henry, however, gained a good deal of support both within and without Germany and caused much anxiety to Ottos friends, but in 985 peace was made and he was restored to Bavaria.
But under the prevalent conditions a vigorous rule was impossible, and during Ottos minority the royal authority was greatly weakened.
Saxony, the home of the Ottos, became less prominent in German politics, while Bavaria and the south were gradually gaining in importance.
While the three Ottos were pursuing the shadow of imperial greatness in Italy, much of the crown land in this duchy had been seized by the nobles and was now held by their descendants.
Under Ottos leadership the Thuringians joined the rising, which soon spread far and wide.
The insubordination of several great vassalsthe count of Vermandois, the duke of Burgundy, the count of Flanderswho treated him as he had treated the Carolingian king; the treachery of Arnuif, archbishop of Reims, who let himself be won over by the empress Theophano; the papal hostility inflamed by the emperor against the claim of feudal France to independence,all made it seem for a time as though the unity of the Roman empire of the West would be secured at Hughs expense and in Ottos favor; but as a matter of fact this papal and imperial hostility ended by making the Capet dynasty a national one.
In Germany it brought about Ottos fall before Frederick II.; in England it introduced the great drama of 1215, the first act of which closed with Magna CartaJohn LaCkland being forced to acknowledge the control of his barons, and to share with them the power he had abused and disgraced.
Moltmann, Theophano, die Gemahlin Ottos II.
Philips supporters were the nobles of southern and eastern Germany, while a few cities in the west owned his authority; Ottos friends were found mainly in the north and the north-west of the country.
The efforts of the pope helped to rekindle the expiring flames of war, and for a year or two success completely deserted Philip. He lost the support of Ottakar of Bohemia and ofHer~ann I., landgrave of Thuringia; he was driven from North Germany into Swabia and Ottos triumph seemed assured.