By this means it was able to defy both the Seljuks and the Ottomans, and to maintain its independence against the emperors of Nicaea and Constantinople.
From time to time the emperors of Trebizond paid tribute to the Seljuk sultans of Iconium, to the grand khans of the Mongols, to Timur the Tatar, to the Turkoman chieftains, and to the Ottomans; but by means of skilful negotiations they were enabled practically to secure their independence.
In 1516 the Ottomans took it from the Egyptian Mamelukes.
In 1464 it was taken by the Ottomans; and after being in Venetian possession in 1690, was restored to them in 1691.
Under the new regime this system, which had greatly cramped the military strength and efficiency of the Ottoman Empire, has been changed, and all " Ottomans " are now subject to military service.
The efforts of Ladislaus of Hungary to mediate were vain, and the years 1497 and 1498 were marked by a terrible devastation of Poland by the Ottomans; only the bitter winter, which is said to have killed 40,000 Turks, prevented the devastation from being more complete.
The power of the Ottomans at sea was maintained during this period by a series of notable captains, such as Khair-ed-din and his son Hassan, Piale, Torgud, Sali Reis and Pin Reis.
In spite of the internal corruption which, under Murad III., heralded the decay of the empire, the prestige of the Ottomans in Europe was maintained during his reign.
But the Ottomans, though the negotiations continued throughout 1738, were in no hurry to come to terms; for the tide of war had turned against both Austrians and Russians; Ochakov and Kinburn were recaptured; and the victorious Turks crossed the Danube and penetrated far into the Banat.
It was the descendants of those Persianized Seljuks whom the early Ottomans found ruling in Asia Minor on their arrival there.
What had happened to the Seljuks two centuries before happened to the Ottomans now: the less civilized race adopted the culture of the more civilized; and, as the Seljuk Empire fell to pieces and the Ottoman came gradually to occupy its place, the sons of men who had called themselves Seljuks began thenceforth to look upon themselves as Ottomans.
Hence the vast majority of the people whom we are accustomed to think of as Ottomans are so only by adoption, being really the descendants of Seljuks or Seljukian subjects, who had derived from Persia whatever they possessed of civilization or of literary taste.
While conspicuously lacking in creative genius, the Ottomans have always shown themselves possessed of receptive and assimilative powers to a remarkable degree, the result being that the number of their writers both in prose and verse is enormous.
Afewyearsafter Constantinople passed into the hands of the Ottomans, some ghazels, the work of the contemporary Tatar prince, Mir `Ali Shir, who under the nom de plume of Nevayi wrote much that shows true talent and poetic feeling, found their way to the Ottoman capital, where they were seen and copied by Ahmed Pasha, one of the viziers of Mahommed II.
The Ottomans have as a rule been particularly successful with elegies; this one by Bati has never been surpassed.
Thereafter the Mamelukes took and kept possession, despite the renewed Tatar inroad of 1401, until the final conquest by the Ottomans in 1517.
In 1488 he gained a great victory over the Ottomans, and in 1491 a peace was made which was not again broken till after Bayezid's death.
Their fleets were divided into squadrons, of which one, under Tombazes, was deputed to watch for the entrance of the Ottomans into the archipelago, while the other under Andreas Miaoulis sailed to blockade Patras and watch the coasts of Epirus.
Meanwhile from the north the Ottomans were making another supreme effort.
Had indeed attempted their subjugation, with but indifferent success; but it was not till 1484 that the Ottomans became inconvenient neighbours to Poland.
It suffered much during the 16th century from the hordes of Ottomans who then ravaged the country.
From 1209 it stood under Venetian control; in 1470 it passed to the Ottomans, who made it the seat of a pasha.
Proceeding from the deserts of Turkestan, the Seljuks reached the Hellespont; but this barrier was crossed and a European power founded by the Ottomans (Osmanli).
His indefatigable activity on behalf of Western civilization, now threatened with extinction by the Ottomans, excites admiration and adds an undying lustre to his memory.
The victories of Charles of Lorraine at Parkany (1683) and Esztergom (Gran) (1685) were followed by the capture of Budapest (1686) and the defeat of the Ottomans at Charles V.
The Mamelukes (slaves), imported from the eastern borders of the Black Sea and then trained as soldiers, usurped the government of Egypt, and held it till 1517, when the Ottomans began to rule.
(6) Period of Ba,~zri MamelukesThe dynasties that succeeded the Ayytibites till the conquest of Egypt by the Ottomans bore the title Dynasties of the Turks, but are more often called Mameluke dynasties, because the sultans were drawn from the enfranchised slaves who constituted the court, and officered the army.
In I49I, however, after the Egyptians had repeatedly defeated the Ottoman troops, Kait Bey made proposals of peace which were accepted, the keys of the towns which the Ottomans had seized being restored to the Egyptian sultan.
On the 20th of January 1517 Cairo was taken by the Ottomans, and Selim shortly after declared sultan of Egypt.
In 1527 the first survey of Egypt under the Ottomans was made, in consequence of the official copy of the former registers having perished by fire; yet this new survey did not come into use until 1605.
Once more the Ottomans were utterly routed.
Obviously~ also, they enjoyed, as a rule, the privilege of deciding law-suits among themselves; their general situation being similar to that of the Christian nationalities under the Ottomans, or to that of many tribes in the Russian Empire at the present day.
The Greeks, however, form the vast majority of the population, so much so that, even while the country belonged to the Ottomans, Greek was employed as the official language.