1547), Ottavio (1586), Alessandro (1592), Ranuccio I.
But in 1549 Pier Luigi was assassinated by his outraged subjects, and the emperor thereupon claimed the two duchies for his son-in-law Ottavio Farnese, Paul's grandson.
The disobedience of his favourite Ottavio hastened the death of the old pope (Nov.
As an adherent of the emperor he suffered in consequence of imperial reverses, and was forced to confirm Parma to Ottavio Farnese, the ally of France (1552).
It was sold in 1623, and in 1634 given to Ottavio Piccolomini; finally, after many changes of ownership, the castle and titular lordship came in 1840 to the princes of Schaumburg-Lippe.