29); secondly, organs commonly termed otocysts, on account of their resemblance to the audi tory vesicles of higher After 0.
The otocysts are placed on the outer wall of the Sub _ _ _ '`Si.
In many Leptomedusae the otocysts are very small, inconspicuous and embedded completely in the tissues; hence they may be easily overlooked in badly-preserved material, and perhaps are present in many cases where they :: r simplest condition of the otocyst is a freely projecting club, a so-called (figs.
As has been described above, the endoderm may also contribute to the sense-organs, but such contributions are always of an accessory nature, for instance, concrement-cells in the otocysts, pigment in the ocelli, and never of sensory nature, sense-cells being Hydromedusae are of separate sexes, the only known exception being Amphogona apsteini, one of the Trachomedusae (Browne ).
Gonosome with free medusae or gonophores; the medusae typically with otocysts, sometimes with cordyli or ocelli (figs.
- Tropho so m e with stalked hydrothecae; gonosome, free medusae with otocysts and four, rarely six or eight, unbranched radial canals.
- Trophosome only known in one genus (Polycanna), and similar to the preceding; gonosome, free medusae with otocysts and with at least eight radial canals, often a hundred or more, simple or branched.
- Trophosome only known in one genus (Thaumantias), similar to that of the Eucopidae; gonosome, free medusae with otocysts inconspicuous or absent, with usually four, sometimes eight, rarely more than eight, radial canals, simple and unbranched, along which the gonads are developed, with numerous tentacles bearing ocelli and with marginal sense-clubs.
The characteristic sense-organs are ectodermal otocysts, absent, however, in some genera, in which case cordyli may replace them.
When otocysts are present, they are at least eight in number, situated adradially, but are often very numerous.
Medusae with sense-organs represented by otocysts derived from modified tentacles (tentaculocysts), containing otoliths of endodermal origin, and innervated from the ex-umbral nerve-ring.
O, Otocysts attached to the cerebro-pedal connectives.
Special to the Heteropoda is the high elaboration of the lingual ribbon, and, as an agreement with some of the opisthobranchiate Euthyneura, but as a difference from the Pectinibranchia, we find the otocysts closely attached to the cerebral ganglia.
Leydig, that the otocysts of Pectinibranchia even when lying close upon the pedal ganglion (as in fig.
The sense-organs of medusae are of two classes: (1) pigment spots, sensitive to light, termed ocelli, which may become elaborated into eye-like structures with lens, retina and vitreous body; (2) organs of the sense of balance or orientation, commonly termed otocysts or statocysts.
A pair of pedal otocysts, and a pair of osphradia at the base of the gills, appear to be always present.
The otocysts of Cyclas are peculiarly favourable for study on account of the transparency of the small foot in which they lie, and may be taken as typical of those of Lamellibranchs generally.
In them the foot has a flat ventral surface used for creeping, as in Gastropods, the byssus gland is but slightly developed, the pleural ganglia are distinct, there is a relic of the pharyngeal cavity, in some forms with a pair of glandular sacs, the gonads retain their primitive connexion with the renal cavities, and the otocysts are open.
The special sense-organs are a pair of eyes on the head, a pair of otocysts or statocysts, and a pair of osphradia which have already been mentioned.
The otocysts are invaginations of the epithelium of the foot, but are innervated from the cerebral ganglia, and the same innervation has been proved in some cases for the osphradia.
The sense-organs are covered over by flaps of the umbrellar margin (hence " Steganophthalmata "), and are always tentaculocysts, that is to say, reduced and modified tentacles, which bear usually both ocelli and otocysts, and are hollow.
In the Mysidae among the Schizopoda a pair of similar otocysts are found in the endopodites of the last pair of appendages (uropods).
Recent observations, however, make it very doubtful whether aquatic Crustacea can hear at all, in the proper sense of the term, and it has been shown that one function, at least, of the so-called otocysts is connected with the equilibration of the body.