Ostwald has proposed a modification of Berthelot's method which has many advantages, and is now commonly in use.
Ostwald has made the further proposal that the formulae of solids should be printed in heavy type (or within square brackets), of liquids (solutions, &c.) in ordinary type, and of gases in italics (or within curved brackets), so that the physical state of the substances 'might be indicated by the equation itself.
Ostwald (who styled its author the "founder of chemical energetics") in 1891 and into French by H.
Ostwald in his Lehrbuch der allgem.
Ostwald, Principles of Inorganic Chemistry (3rd Eng.
Ostwald (Lehrbuch der allg.
Ostwald has confirmed the equation by observation on an enormous number of weak acids (Zeits.
Ostwald, Lehrbuch der allgemeinen Chemie, 2te Aufl.
(1901); Kohlrausch, Practical Physics; Ostwald, Physico-Chemical Measurements.
Ostwald (ibid., 1900, 35, pp. 33, 204) has observed that on dissolving chromium in dilute acids, the rate of solution as measured by the evolution of gas is not continuous but periodic. It is largely made as ferro-chrome, an alloy containing about 60-70% of chromium, by reducing chromite in the electric furnace or by aluminium.
Ostwald and J.
By Wilhelm Ostwald especially, attempts have been made to substitute the notion of atoms and molecular structure by less hypothetical conceptions; these ideas may some day receive thorough confirmation, and when this occurs science will receive a striking impetus.
An early step accomplished by Ostwald in this direction is to define ozone in its relation to oxygen, considering the former as differing from the latter by an excess of energy, measurable as heat of transformation, instead of defining the difference as diatomic molecules in oxygen, and triatomic in ozone.
Ostwald, among other chemists, in support of the hypothesis of electrolytic dissociation in solutions.
Ostwald, employing Wiillner's results, found the lowering of vapourpressure produced by different salts in solution in water to be approximately the same for solutions containing the same number of gramme-molecules of salt per c.c. F.
Outside the English-writing world, identical or kindred tendencies are represented in France by Leroy, Poincare, Bergson, Milhaud, Blondel, Duhem, Wilbois, Pradines; in Germany by Mach, Ostwald, Simmel, Jerusalem, Goldscheid, Jacoby; in Italy by Papini, Prezzolini, Vailati, Troiano.