(976) this "East Mark" (Ostmark, Oesterreich, Austria) was granted in fief to the Babenbergers, and in the reign of Frederick Barbarossa (1156) it was advanced to the rank of a duchy.
There is no certain record that the site of Vindobona was occupied at the time of the formation of the Ostmark, though many considerations make it probable.
Legal tender were the "Ostmark" (originally introduced by the German Military Administration of the Army of Occupation, "Militdrisches Verwaltungsgebiet Ober-Ost"), which in Lithuania proper ranked pari passu with the German "Reichsmark," and other German fiduciary currency to a total not less than one milliard marks.
The Austrian state had from its first origins always had a self-imposed political mission; its very name of origin, Ostmark (The Eastern March), marked it geographically as a bulwark, a gate-keeper, to defend Europe on the W.
Wimmer, Die Ostmark (1917); Munin, Oesterreich nach dem Kriege (1915); W.
When the emperor Conrad, with the deliberate intention of subjugating Hungary, invaded it in 1030, Stephen not only drove him out, but captured Vienna (now mentioned for the first time) 'and compelled the emperor to cede a large portion of the Ostmark (1031).