OSTIA, an ancient town and harbour of Latium, Italy, at the mouth of the river Tiber on its left bank.
When it began to have magistrates of its own is not known: nor indeed have we any inscriptions from Ostia that can be certainly attributed to the Republican period.
We learn much as to these magistrates from the large number of inscriptions that have been found (over 2000 in Ostia and Portus taken together) and also as to the cults.
Vulcan was the most important - perhaps in early times the only - deity worshipped at Ostia, and the priesthood of Vulcan was held sometimes by Roman senators.
No traces of Jewish worship have been found at Ostia, but at Portus a considerable number of Jewish inscriptions in Greek have come to light.
Of the church in Ostia there is no authentic record before the 4th century A.D., though there are several Christian inscriptions of an earlier date; but the first bishop of Ostia of whom we have any certain knowledge dates from A.D.
Until Trajan formed the port of Centumcellae (Civitavecchia) Ostia was the best harbour along the low sandy coast of central Italy between Monte Argentario and Monte Circeo.
5, p. 231) the harbour of Ostia had become dangerous: he speaks of it as a "city without a harbour owing to the silting up brought about by the Tiber.
Of Ostia, with an area of 170 acres enclosed by two curving moles, with an artificial island, supporting a lofty lighthouse, in the centre of the space between them.
Ostia thus lost a considerable amount of its trade, but its importance still continued to be great.
In the middle ages Ostia regained something of its importance, owing to the silting up of the right arm of the Tiber.
Hitherto Ostia does not seem to have been very unhealthy.
Excavations on the site of Ostia were only begun towards the close of the 18th century, and no systematic work was done until 1854, when under Pius IX.
Square surrounded by colonnades, in which were placed the offices of the various collegia or guilds of boatmen, raftmen and others, which had a special importance at Ostia; the names of the guilds may still be read in inscriptions in the mosaic pavements of the chambers.
Two years later he was canonized by Gregory IX., whom, as Cardinal Hugolino of Ostia, he had chosen to be the protector of his order.
Della Rovere, feeling that Rome was a dangerous place for him, fortified himself in his bishopric of Ostia at the Tiber's mouth, while Ferdinand allied himself with Florence, Milan, Venice, and the pope formed a league against Naples (April 25, 1493) and prepared for war.
The papal states were in a turmoil, and the powerful Colonna faction seized Ostia in the name of France.
His only success had been the capture of Ostia and the submission of the Francophile cardinals Colonna and Savelli.
The great dorsal contractile vessel or " heart " of Limulus is closely similar to that of Scorpio; its ostia or incurrent orifices are FIG.
Opening in pairs in each somite, right and left into the pericardial sinus are large veins, which bring the blood respectively from the gill-books and the lungbooks to that chamber, whence it passes by the ostia into the heart.
The size of the sanctuaries, however, was compensated for by their number; in Ostia alone there were five.
The construction of the coast road, the Via Severiana, from Ostia to Tarracina, added to the importance of the place; and the beauty of the promontory with its luxuriant flora and attractive view had made it frequented by the Romans as early as 200 B.C. Galba and Domitian possessed country houses here.
He was created cardinal-bishop of Ostia in 1078 by Gregory VII., to whom he displayed such loyalty, especially as papal legate in Germany (1084), that he was imprisoned for a time by Henry IV.
In 1279 Pope Nicholas sent his nephew, the friar preacher Latino Frangipani Malabranca, whom he had created cardinal bishop of Ostia the same year, to reconcile the parties in Florence once more.
Like Ostia, Puteoli was considered a special port of Rome, and, on account of the safety and convenience of its harbour, it was preferred to Ostia for the landing of the more costly and delicate wares.
As at Ostia, the various gilds were of considerable importance, but we find no centonarii or fabri, perhaps owing to its relations with the East, where these popular gilds were prohibited.
Nero's scheme for the construction of a canal from Lake Avernus to Ostia would have restored the balance in its favour (though it certainly could not have been continuous all the way to Rome with the means of engineering then available).
Claudius established here, as at Ostia, a cohort of vigiles as a fire-brigade.
He studied at Paris and Bologna, and, having been successively archpriest of St Peter's, papal chaplain, cardinal-deacon of Sant' Eustachio, cardinal-bishop of Ostia, the first protector of the Franciscan order, and papal legate in Germany under Innocent III., and Honorius III., he succeeded the latter in the papacy.
The heart has a pair of venous ostia, often blending into one, and an anterior arterial aorta.
He fortified the Janiculum, threw a wooden bridge across the Tiber, founded the port of Ostia, established salt-works and built a prison.
Above sealevel - in a series of picturesque ravines, skirts the west foot of the Sabine Mountains in a broad shallow valley, then crosses the Roman Campagna, cutting its way through Rome, and finally enters the Tyrrhenian (Mediterranean) Sea by two arms at Ostia and Fiumicino, the latter artificial.
On several occasions St Bernard was begged to fight the innovator on the scene of his exploits, and in 1145, at the instance of the legate Alberic, cardinal bishop of Ostia, he set out, passing through the diocese of Angouleme and Limoges, sojourning for some time at Bordeaux, and finally reaching the heretical towns of Bergerac, Perigueux, Sarlat, Cahors and Toulouse.
2 By Nero's orders, the open spaces in the Campus Martius were utilized to give shelter to the homeless crowds, provisions were brought from Ostia and the price of corn lowered.
The man who brought the grain from Africa to the public stores at Ostia, the baker who made it into loaves for distribution, the butchers who brought pigs from Samnium, Lucania or Bruttium, the purveyors of wine and oil, the men who fed the furnaces of the public baths, were bound to their callings from one generation to another.
Made him cardinal deacon in 1227 and cardinal bishop of Ostia in 1231.
At Ostia, where much of the corn was stored which fed the Roman population, the cult of this god became famous; and it is probable that the fixing of his festival in August by the early Romans had some reference to the danger to the newly harvested corn from fire in that month.
True, the presbyter Caius (c. 200) who first mentions the situation of the apostolic tombs on the Vatican and the road to Ostia, and refers to the memorials there erected, has nothing to say of foreign Christians journeying to Rome in order to visit them.
431) concurs - his custom being to visit Ostia each year, and Rome on the apostolic anniversaries (Ep. 20, 2; 45, r).
From Ostia to Terracina, a distance of 73 m.
Thus one of the oldest roads in Italy is the Via Salaria, by which the produce of the salt pans of Ostia was carried up into the Sabine country.
In 1342 he was made cardinal-priest of Sti Giovanni e Paolo, and ten years later cardinal-bishop of Ostia and Velletri, grand penitentiary, and administrator of the bishopric of Avignon.