6; in the Khabur district), Bit Adini (Osroene), Kummukh (north-west corner and beyond); in the Roman period, Osroene, Mygdonia (in the east), and in Syriac usage Beth `Arbaye (between Nisibis and Mosul); in the Arab period, Diarbekr (T ar `Abdin), Diar Rebi'a (Mygdonia), Diar Muelar (Osroene).
The same is doubtless true of the route from Osroene by Ras al-`Ain and Nasibin, and that by Veranshehr and Mardin to the Tigris.
Gradually settlements were made, the names of many of which are given by the various Assyrian kings who had at one time or another to assert or reassert supremacy over them - such as Chindanu, Laqe, Sulhi along the South Euphrates boundary of Mesopotamia, and various districts bearing names compounded with Bit = settlement (see above), such as Bit-Adini (nearly equal the later Osroene; see Edessa), or Bit-Zamani in the north near Diarbekr.
These are all in the Osroene district; but Nasibin became an Antioch, and as its district was known as Mygdonia (from Macedon) there were doubtless many other Greek settlements.
About this time they even founded a dynasty in Aramaean Osroene (see Edessa).
Then, when Vologaeses, yielding to his growing discontent, took advantage of the death of Antoninus to invade Armenia the Romans were victorious (164), and after the storming of places such as Nicephorium, Edessa, Nisibis, western Mesopotamia was once more Roman as far as the Khabur, Carrhae becoming a free city and Osroene a dependency.
Unfortunately they contain practically nothing that is not of Christian origin.4 On the death of Aurelius Hatra aided Niger against Septimius Severus in 194; Osroene rose against Rome, and Nisibis was besieged and other Roman places taken; but Septimius Severus appeared in person (195), and from Nisibis as headquarters subdued the whole country, of which he made Nisibis metropolis, raising it to the rank of a colony, the Sinjar district, where Arabs from Yemen had settled, being incorporated.
Peace then prevailed till Carcalla's unprovoked attack on Parthia in 216, after he had reduced Osroene to a province.
M., 351, 200 pop.) takes in on the east territory with which we are not concerned, and omits the Osroene district, which goes with Aleppo.
When Tigranes had submitted, Pompey received him into favor and extended the Roman supremacy over the vassal states of Gordyene and Osroene; though he had allured the Parthian king with the prospect of the recovery of his old possessions as far as the Euphrates.
The ten most important of the vassal states were: ~1~ The kingdom of Osroene (q.v.) in the north-~east of Mesopotamia, with Edessa as capital, founded about 130 B.C. by the chieftain of an Ai-abian tribe, the Orrhoej, which established itself there.
This war, which broke out on the question of Armenia and Osroene, proved of decisive significance for the future development of the East, for, in its course, Seleucia was destroyed by the Romans under Avidius Cassius (164).
Of which the language was the dialect of Edessa, a city in which the last king of Osroene, Abgar IX.
In the west the old conflict for Osroene and northern Mesopotamia (now Roman provinces), with the fortresses of Edessa, Carrhae and Nisibis, still smouldered.
But after the death of Trajan (117) Hadrian acknowledged Osroes and made Parthamaspates king of Edessa (Osroene); he also gave back to Osroes his daughter who had been taken prisoner by Trajan (Dio Cass.
17, 24, the name of the territory of Osroene is derived from a dynast Osroes, but this is a false etymology (see OS ROENE).