The essential feature of the asymmetry of Gastropoda is the atrophy or disappearance of the primitively left half of the circumanal complex (the right half in sinistral forms), including the gill, the auricle, the osphradium, the hypobranchial gland and the kidney.
In these there are neither branchia nor osphradium, and the pallial chamber which retains its large open ing serves as a lung.
Near to each rudimentary ctenidium Spengel has discovered an olfactory patch or osphradium (consisting of modified epithelium) and an olfactory nerve-ganglion (fig.
It will be remembered that, according to Spengel, the osphradium of mollusca is definitely and intimately related to the gill-plume or ctenidium, being always placed near the base of that organ; further, Spengel has shown that the nerve-supply of this olfactory organ is always derived from the visceral loop. Accord ingly, the nerve-supply FIG.
- A, Section in a plane vertical to the surface of the neck of Patella through a, the rudimentary ctenidium (Lankester's organ), and b, the olfactory epithelium (osphradium); c, the olfactory (osphradial) ganglion.
Limpet, and that of the g ' nerves which pass from the visceral loop of Haliotis to the olfactory patch or osphradium, which lies in immediate relation on the right and on the left side to the right and left gill-plumes (ctenidia) respectively.
Pbr, Parabranchia (= the osphradium or olfactory patch).
Spengel showed that the parabranchia of Gastropods is the typical olfactory organ or osphradium in a highly developed condition.
The Heteropoda are further remarkable for the high development of their cephalic eyes, and for the typical character of their osphradium (Spengel's olfactory organ).
This is a groove, the edges of which are raised and ciliated, lying near the branchial plume in the genera which possess that organ, whilst in Firoloida, which has no branchial plume, the osphradium occupies a corresponding position.
Shell inrolled, solid, polished, aperture very narrow in adult; short siphon; anus posterior; osphradium with three lobes; mantle reflected over shell.
Actaeon is prosobranchiate, the visceral commissure is twisted in Actaeon and Chilina, and even slightly still in Bulla and Scaphander; in Actaeon and Limacina the osphradium is to the left, innervated by the supra-intestinal ganglion.
In front, near the anterior attachment of the gill-plume, is the osphradium (olfactory organ) dis h covered by J.
To the right of Spengel's osphradium is the opening of a peculiar gland which has, when dissected out, the form of a bunch of grapes; its secretion is said to be poisonous.
In front of the osphradium is the single genital pore, the aperture of the common or hermaphrodite duct.
The osphradium (olfactory organ of Spengel).
Spengel's observation of the osphradium and its nervesupply in these forms; the nerve to that organ, which is placed somewhat anteriorly - on the dorsal surface - being given off from the hinder part (visceral) of the right compound ganglion - the fellow to that marked A in fig.
Sp, Abdominal ganglion which represents also the supra-intestinal ganglion of Streptoneura and gives off the nerve to the osphradium (olfactory organ) o, and another to an unlettered socalled " genital " ganglion.
In aquatic Pulmonata the osphradium is retained.
Here we need only further draw attention to the osphradium, discovered by Lacaze-Duthiers, and shown by Spengel to agree in its innervation with that organ in all other Gastropoda.
On account of the shortness of the visceral loop and the proximity of the right visceral ganglion to the oesophageal nerve-ring, the nerve to the osphradium and olfactory ganglion is very long.
The position of the osphradium corresponds more or less closely with that of the vanished right ctenidium, with which it is normally associated.
In Helix and Limax the osphradium has not been described, and possibly its discovery might clear up the doubts which have been raised as to the nature of the mantle-chamber of those genera.
Instead of being destral, 'the osphradium is on the left side, and receives its nerve from the left visceral ganglion, the whole series of unilateral organs being reversed.
Krohn posite to it is the visceral ganglion of in Marsenia =Echino- the right side, which gives off the long spira) there may be a nerve to the olfactory ganglion and break at a later stage, osphradium o.
All have an osphradium, except the Auriculidae, which are terrestrial, and it is situated outside the pallial cavity in those forms in which water is not admitted into the lung.
Near the base of the ctenidium is a patch of sensory epithelium innervated from the branchial nerve, forming a sense-organ called the osphradium, whose function is to test the water entering the branchial cavity.
It consists of the anus in the middle, a renal organ and renal aperture on each side of this, and a ctenidium outside or anterior to the renal organ, an osphradium being situated at the base of the ctenidium.
One osphradium or branchial olfactory organ is usually present on each side, on either side of the anus on the inner wall of the mantle, near the base of the last gill.
In Lepidopleuridae an osphradium occurs at the base of each gill.