The town was captured by the Seljuk sultan, Alp Arslan, 1064, and by the Mongols, 1243, before passing to the Osmanli Turks.
In the 16th century it was added to the Osmanli Empire by Selim I.
The revenues produced by the customs duties for the five years1905-1906to1909-1910are as follows: Finance Preliminary Sketch.-From the outset of their history the Osmanli Turks adapted to their own needs most of the political, economic and administrative institutions which existed before them.
It was also much favoured by the early Osmanli sultans, one of whom, Selim I., was born there.
The defeat suffered by the Suvla troops on the 9th was in reality decisive in so far as the new area was concerned; but, even so, the invaders who had set foot there tried yet again on the 10th to wrest the heights in front of them out of Osmanli keeping.
In 1517 the Osmanli Turkish sultan Selim conquered Egypt, and having received the right of succession to the caliphate was solemnly presented by the sherif of Mecca with the keys of the city, and recognized as the spiritual head of Islam and ruler of the Hejaz.
Hence it is that the Nubians of this district, fairest of all the race, still claim Arab and Osmanli (Bosnian) descent.
Under the influence of his friend and instructor, the Mollah Ahmed Effendi, he became, nominally at least, a full Osmanli, and entering the Turkish service, was afterwards secretary to Fuad Pasha.
When the Seljuk state broke up, and the Osmanli or Ottoman sovereignty arose, Konia decayed, its population dwindled and the splendid early Turkish buildings were suffered to go to ruin.
The founder of the Mevlevi dancing dervishes, the poet Mahommed Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi), in 1307, though tempted to assume the inheritance along with the empire of the Seljuk sultan Ala ed-din Kaikobad III., who died without heirs, preferred to pass on the power to Osman, son of Ertogrul, and with his own hands invested Osman and girt him with the sword: this investiture was the legitimate beginning of the Osmanli authority.
The heirs of Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi) were favoured by the Osmanli sultans until 1516, when Selim was on the point of destroying the Mevlevi establishment as hostile to the Osmanli and the faith; and though he did not do so the Mevlevi and their chiefs were deprived of influence and dignity.
He has also the privilege of corresponding direct with the caliph; but otherwise is regarded as rather opposed to the Osmanli administration, and has no real power.
In 1472 it was annexed to the Osmanli empire by Mahommed II.
After having been held by Mongols, Tatars and Turkomans, it was added to the Osmanli empire by Mahommed II.
In 1502 Mesopotamia passed for a time into the hands of the Safawid shah, Ishmael; but in 1516 it came under the Osmanli Turks, to whom it has belonged ever since.
A contest for supremacy followed, which eventually ended in favour of the Osmanli Turks of Brusa.
On the death of Timur Osmanli supremacy was re-established after a prolonged struggle, which ended with the annexation by Mahommed II.
From these disasters the country never recovered, and the last traces of Western civilization disappeared with the enforced use of the Turkish language and the wholesale conversions to Islam under the earliest Osmanli sultans.