In 1813 the ruthless severity of the governor-general, Haji Osman, who obtained the co-operation of the Christians, broke the power of the janissaries; but after Osman had fallen a victim.
When the Sudan War broke out, Baker, hastening with 3 500 men to relieve Tokar, encountered the enemy under Osman Digna at El Teb.
In reward for the brilliant services rendered him by Ertoghrul (the father of Osman) and by Osman himself, Ala-ud-din, the last of the Seljuk sultans, conferred certain provinces in fief upon these two great warriors.
The total credits for the ministry of finance are, then, as follows: Ottoman public debt, £T8,288,394; House of Osman, £T443,880; legislative corps, U181,871; treasury, ET2,989,600; central accounts department, £T17,124; forming an aggregate of £T11,920,869.
But Osman remained firm in his allegiance, and by repeated victories over the Greeks revived the drooping glories of his suzerain.
His earliest conquest was Karaja Hissar (1295),(1295), where first the name of Osman was substituted for that of the sultan in the weekly prayer.
Osman continued his victorious career against the Greeks, and by his valour and also through allying himself with Keusse Mikhal, lord of Harman Kaya, became master of Ainegeul, Bilejik and Yar Hissar.
That Osman declared his independence, and accordingly the Turkish historian dates the foundation of the Ottoman Empire from this event.
Osman reigned as independent monarch until 1326.
In 1617 the sultan died, and was succeeded by his brother Mustafa; but the latter being declared incompetent to reign, his brother Osman took his place on the throne.
Osman IL, were given up. Peace, however, left the rebellious 1618-1622.
He was succeeded by his brother Osman, whose three years' reign w as marked by no political event of special 1754-1757.
But he arrived too late; Selim had already been killed; the unworthy Mustafa was put to death, and Mahmud, the sole survivor of the house of Osman, became sultan.
With an inexperienced boy on the throne, divided and untrustworthycounsels in :the divan, and the defences of the empire shattered, the house of Osman seemed doomed and the Turkish Empire about to dissolve into its elements.
Plevna surrendered on the 9th of December 1877 after a heroic struggle under Osman Pasha.
Sultan Veled flourished during the reign of ` Osman I., though he did not reside in the territory under the rule of that prince.
The founder of the Mevlevi dancing dervishes, the poet Mahommed Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi), in 1307, though tempted to assume the inheritance along with the empire of the Seljuk sultan Ala ed-din Kaikobad III., who died without heirs, preferred to pass on the power to Osman, son of Ertogrul, and with his own hands invested Osman and girt him with the sword: this investiture was the legitimate beginning of the Osmanli authority.
In the summer of 1876 he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Servian army, but on entering Turkey was driven back by Osman Pasha, who followed him into Servia, defeating him at Zayechar and Yavor in July, and the campaign in Servia proved disastrous.
An army of 160,000 Turkish veterans led by Sultan Osman in person advanced from Adrianople towards the Polish frontier, but Chodkiewicz crossed the Dnieper in September 1621 and entrenched himself in the fortress of Khotin right in the path of the Ottoman advance.
Here for a whole month the Polish hero held the sultan at bay, till the first fall of autumn snow compelled Osman to withdraw his diminished forces..
Suakin was the headquarters of the Egyptian and British troops operating in the eastern Sudan against the dervishes under Osman Digna (see EGYPT, Military Operations, 1884, seq.).
There are also the family order, for Turkish princes, the Hanedani-Ali-Osman, founded in 1893, and the Ertogroul, in 1903.
Little can be said of this degenerate son of Suleiman, who during the eight years of his reign never girded on the sword of Osman, and preferred the clashing of wine-goblets to the shock of arms, save that with the dissolute tastes of his mother he had not inherited her ferocity.
Promoted to be a lieutenantgeneral, and given the command of the 16th Division, he took part in the investment of Plevna and also in the fight of the 9th of December, when Osman Pasha surrendered, with his army.
He died shortly afterwards and was succeeded by Osman Bey al-Bardisi.
They offered an heroic resistance, but were overpowered, and iiome killed, some made prisoners; among the last was Osman Bey al-BardIsI, who was severely wounded.
On the Red Sea littoral Osman Digria, a slave dealer of Suakin, appointed amir of the Eastern Sudan, raised the local tribes and invested fi3J(er.
Two heavy blows had now been inflicted on the followers of Osman Digna, and the road to Berber could have been opened, as General Graham and Brigadier-General Sir H.
The abrupt disappearance of the British troops encouraged the tribesmen led by Osman Digna, and effectually prevented the ~atangle- formation of a native movement, which might have ment ~-,i been of great value.
I have from first endeavoured to impress on government that I am strong enough to relieve Khartum, and believe in being able to send a force, when returning by way of Berber, to Suakin, to open road and crush Osman Digna.
On the 8th of February Lord Wolseley telegraphed, The sooner you can now deal with Osman Digna the better, and recommended the despatch of Indian troops to Suakin, to co-operate with me in keeping road to Berber open.
Graham was placed in command of this force, with orders to break down the power of Osman Digna and to press the construction of the railway towards Berber.
The withdrawal of the Suakin force began on the 17th of May, and the friendly tribes, deprived of support, were compelled to make terms with Osman Digna, who was soon able to turn his attention to Kassala, which capitulated in August, nearly at the same time as Sennar.
Unfortunately famine compelled the garrison of Kassala to capitulate on the 3oth of July of that year, and Osman Digna hurried there from Tamai to raise a force with which to meet the Abyssinian general, Ras Alula, who was preparing for its relief.
By the end of August Osman Digna had occupied Kufit, in the Barea country, with 10,000 men and entrenched himself.
Over 3ooo dervishes with their principal amirs, except Osman Digna, lay dead on the field, and many more were killed in the pursuit.
Meanwhile Osman Digna, who had fled from Kufit to Kassala, wreaked his vengeance upon the unhappy captives at Kassala.
Kitchener, who was at the time governor of the Red Sea littoral, judiciously arranged a combination of them to overthrow Osman Digna, with the result that his stronghold at Tamai was captured on the 7th of October, 200 of his men killed, and 5o prisoners, 17 guns and a vast store of rifles and ammunition captured.
Then at the end of 1887 Osman Digna again advanced towards Suakin, but his force at Tarol was routed by the Handub.
Kitchener unsuccessfully endeavoured to capture Osman Digna on the 17th of January 1888, but in the attack was himself severely wounded, and was shortly after invalided.
Later in the year Osman Digna collected a large force and besieged Suakin.
In January 1891 Osman Digna showed signs of increased activity, and Colonel (afterwards Sir Charles) Holled Smith, then governor of the Red Sea littoral, attacked Handub successfully on the 27th and occupied it, then seized Trinkitat and Teb, and on the 19th of February fought the decisive action of Afafit, occupied Tokar, and drove Osman Digna back to Temrin with a loss of 700 men, including Baffle of all his chief amirs.
This action proved the final blow ~~afu to the dervish power in the neighborhood of Suakin, for although raiding continued on a small scale, the tribes were growing tired of the khalif as rule and refused to support Osman Digna.
Osman wad Adam (Ganu), amir of Kordofan, was sent by the khalif a to Karamallas assistance.
The Darfurian chiefs then allied themselves with Abu Gemaiza, sheikh of the Masalit Arabs, who had proclaimed himself Khalifa Osman, and was known as the anti-mahdi.
Abu Gemaiza attacked a portion of Osman Adams force, under Abd-elKader, at Kebkebia, 30 m.
From El Fasher, and almost annihilated it on the I 6th of October 1888; and a week later another large force of Osman Adam met with the same fate at the same place.
In the me~ntime the advance to Akasha had already relieved the pressure at Kassala, Osman Digna having withdrawn a considerable force from the investing army and proceeded with it to Suakin.
To meet Osman Dignas movement LieutenantColonel G.