In 1813 the ruthless severity of the governor-general, Haji Osman, who obtained the co-operation of the Christians, broke the power of the janissaries; but after Osman had fallen a victim.
When the Sudan War broke out, Baker, hastening with 3 500 men to relieve Tokar, encountered the enemy under Osman Digna at El Teb.
In reward for the brilliant services rendered him by Ertoghrul (the father of Osman) and by Osman himself, Ala-ud-din, the last of the Seljuk sultans, conferred certain provinces in fief upon these two great warriors.
The total credits for the ministry of finance are, then, as follows: Ottoman public debt, £T8,288,394; House of Osman, £T443,880; legislative corps, U181,871; treasury, ET2,989,600; central accounts department, £T17,124; forming an aggregate of £T11,920,869.
But Osman remained firm in his allegiance, and by repeated victories over the Greeks revived the drooping glories of his suzerain.
His earliest conquest was Karaja Hissar (1295),(1295), where first the name of Osman was substituted for that of the sultan in the weekly prayer.
Osman continued his victorious career against the Greeks, and by his valour and also through allying himself with Keusse Mikhal, lord of Harman Kaya, became master of Ainegeul, Bilejik and Yar Hissar.
That Osman declared his independence, and accordingly the Turkish historian dates the foundation of the Ottoman Empire from this event.
Osman reigned as independent monarch until 1326.
In 1617 the sultan died, and was succeeded by his brother Mustafa; but the latter being declared incompetent to reign, his brother Osman took his place on the throne.
Osman IL, were given up. Peace, however, left the rebellious 1618-1622.
He was succeeded by his brother Osman, whose three years' reign w as marked by no political event of special 1754-1757.
But he arrived too late; Selim had already been killed; the unworthy Mustafa was put to death, and Mahmud, the sole survivor of the house of Osman, became sultan.
With an inexperienced boy on the throne, divided and untrustworthycounsels in :the divan, and the defences of the empire shattered, the house of Osman seemed doomed and the Turkish Empire about to dissolve into its elements.
Plevna surrendered on the 9th of December 1877 after a heroic struggle under Osman Pasha.
Sultan Veled flourished during the reign of ` Osman I., though he did not reside in the territory under the rule of that prince.
The founder of the Mevlevi dancing dervishes, the poet Mahommed Jelal-ed-Din (Rumi), in 1307, though tempted to assume the inheritance along with the empire of the Seljuk sultan Ala ed-din Kaikobad III., who died without heirs, preferred to pass on the power to Osman, son of Ertogrul, and with his own hands invested Osman and girt him with the sword: this investiture was the legitimate beginning of the Osmanli authority.
In the summer of 1876 he was appointed commander-in-chief of the Servian army, but on entering Turkey was driven back by Osman Pasha, who followed him into Servia, defeating him at Zayechar and Yavor in July, and the campaign in Servia proved disastrous.
An army of 160,000 Turkish veterans led by Sultan Osman in person advanced from Adrianople towards the Polish frontier, but Chodkiewicz crossed the Dnieper in September 1621 and entrenched himself in the fortress of Khotin right in the path of the Ottoman advance.
Here for a whole month the Polish hero held the sultan at bay, till the first fall of autumn snow compelled Osman to withdraw his diminished forces..
There are also the family order, for Turkish princes, the Hanedani-Ali-Osman, founded in 1893, and the Ertogroul, in 1903.
Little can be said of this degenerate son of Suleiman, who during the eight years of his reign never girded on the sword of Osman, and preferred the clashing of wine-goblets to the shock of arms, save that with the dissolute tastes of his mother he had not inherited her ferocity.
Promoted to be a lieutenantgeneral, and given the command of the 16th Division, he took part in the investment of Plevna and also in the fight of the 9th of December, when Osman Pasha surrendered, with his army.
He died shortly afterwards and was succeeded by Osman Bey al-Bardisi.
They offered an heroic resistance, but were overpowered, and iiome killed, some made prisoners; among the last was Osman Bey al-BardIsI, who was severely wounded.
On the Red Sea littoral Osman Digria, a slave dealer of Suakin, appointed amir of the Eastern Sudan, raised the local tribes and invested fi3J(er.
Two heavy blows had now been inflicted on the followers of Osman Digna, and the road to Berber could have been opened, as General Graham and Brigadier-General Sir H.
The abrupt disappearance of the British troops encouraged the tribesmen led by Osman Digna, and effectually prevented the ~atangle- formation of a native movement, which might have ment ~-,i been of great value.
I have from first endeavoured to impress on government that I am strong enough to relieve Khartum, and believe in being able to send a force, when returning by way of Berber, to Suakin, to open road and crush Osman Digna.
On the 8th of February Lord Wolseley telegraphed, The sooner you can now deal with Osman Digna the better, and recommended the despatch of Indian troops to Suakin, to co-operate with me in keeping road to Berber open.
The next month, December 1883, saw the surrender' of Slatin in Darfur, whilst in February 1884 Osman Digna, his amir in the Red Sea regions, inflicted a crushing defeat on some 4000 Egyptians at El Teb near Suakin.
During his reign the Turks under Osman conquered nearly the whole of Bithynia; and to resist them the emperor called in the aid of Roger di Flor, who commanded a body of Spanish adventurers.
The British expedition to Suakin was engaged in a series of battles with Osman Digna, the mahdis lieutenant; while General Gordon, after alternate reverses and successes, was isolated at Ofl~ Khartum.
Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Hyderabad >>
Although he had set his troops in motion too late to relieve Kassala, Ras Alula, his chief general, had succeeded in inflicting a handsome defeat on Osman Digna at Kufit in September 1885.
Wide and now almost silted up. To the north lies an extensive shallow basin, called the lagoon of Osman Aga, originally part of the great harbour but now cut off from it by a narrow sandbank.
Though differing on many points, they agree in thinking (I) that the island of Sphagia is the ancient Sphacteria, Palaeokastro the ancient Coryphasium or Pylos; (2) that in 425 B.C. the lagoon of Osman Aga was navigable and communicated by a navigable channel with the Bay of Navarino; (3) that Thucydides, if the MS. reading is correct, underestimates the length of the island, which he gives as 15 stades instead of 24 (nearly 3 m.), and also the breadth of the southern channel between it and the mainland.
In the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 he joined the Russians before Plevna, and being placed in command of the combined Russian and Rumanian forces, forced Osman Pasha to surrender.
He occupied Abu Klea wells and Metemma; recalled the amir Ibrahim Khalil, with 4000 men, from the Ghezira; brought to Omdurman thc army of the west under Mahmudsome 10,000 men; entrusted the line of the AtbaraEd Darner, Adarama, Asubri and El Fasherto Osman Digna; constructed defences in the Shabluka gorge; and personally superintended the organization and drill of the forces gathered at Orndurman, and the collection of vast stores of food and supplies of camels for offensive expeditions.
The khalifa, fearing an attack on Olndurman, moved Osman Digna from Adarama to Shendi.
But at the end of February, Mahmud crossed the Nile to Shendi with some 12,000 fighting men, and with Osman Digna advanced along the right bank of the Nile to Ahab, where he struck across the desert to Nakheila, on the Atbara, intending to turn Kitcheners left flank at Berber.