Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris (London, 1906).
It is not so much as king of the dead that Osiris here appears, but every deceased Egyptian was regarded as himself an Osiris, as having undergone all the indignities inificted upon the god, but finally triumphant over the powers of death and evil impersonated by Seth.
According to Gruppe, the legend of the death of Orpheus is a late imitation of the Adonis-Osiris myth.
With this may be compared the festivals of Adonis and Osiris and the myth of Persephone.
Osiris and Isis are closely connected with Syria and the Lebanon in legend; the Ded or sacred pillar of Osiris is doubtless really a representation of a great cedar with its horizontally outspreading branches; 8 another of the sacred Egyptian trees is obviously a cypress; corn and wine are traditionally associated with Osiris, and it is probable that corn and wine were first domesticated in Syria, and came thence with the gods Osiris and Re (the sun god of Heliopolis) into the Delta.
Budge, who believes it to be a representation of the vertebrae of Osiris, which would be a holy relic); (9) Ilethitische Studien, I., II., Berlin, (1916-9); (10) Contenau, Trente Tablettes Cappadociennes (1919); S.
Plutarch, drawing partly on Theopompus, speaks of his religion in his Isis and Osiris (cc. 46-47).
The Osiris Apis, just as dead men were assimilated to Osiris, the king of the underworld.
Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris (London, 1906); Joseph Bingham, Antiquities of the Christian Church, bk.
Busiris is here probably an earlier and less accurate Graecism than Osiris for the name of the Egyptian god Usiri, like Bubastis, Buto, for the goddesses Ubasti and Uto.
All shrines of Osiris were called P-usiri, but the principal city of the name was in the centre of the Delta, capital of the 9th (Busirite) nome of Lower Egypt; another one near Memphis (now Abusir) may have helped the formation of the legend in that quarter.
It is assumed above that the name Serapis (so written in later Greek and in Latin, in earlier Greek Sarapis) is derived from the Egyptian Userhapi - as it were Osiris-Apis - the name of the bull Apis, dead and, like all the blessed dead, assimilated to Osiris,.
On the other hand, Osiris with Isis and Horus was everywhere honoured and popular, and while the artificer Ptah, the god of the great native capital of Egypt, made no appeal to the imagination, the Apis bull, an incarnation of Ptah, threw Ptah himself altogether into the shade in the popular estimation.
Like Aphrodite and Adonis in Syria, Baal and Astarte at Sidon, and Isis and Osiris in Egypt, the Great Mother and Attis formed a duality which symbolized the relations between Mother Earth and her fruitage.
But it was a sign of the times when Serapis and Isis, Osiris and Anubis began to take place among the popular deities in the old Greek lands.
They comprise fragments of the native historian Manetho, the descriptions of Egypt in Herodotus and Diodorus, the geographical accounts of Strabo and Ptolemy, the treatise of Plutarch on Isis and Osiris and other monographs or scattered notices of less importance.
(d) Among the later religious books one or two deserve a special mention, such as The Overthrowing of Apophis, the serpent enemy of the sun-god; The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys over their murdered brother Osiris; The Book of Breathings, a favorite book among the later Theban priests.
Of Osiris we can only state that he was originally local god of Busiris, whatever further characteristics he iitively possessed being quite obscure.
Isis was perhaps the 1 goddess of Buto, a town not far distant from Busiris; geographical proximity would suffice to explain her conon with Osiris in the tale.
The more ancient account survived, however, he myth that Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis and Nephthys (a less who plays but a minor part in the Osiris cycle) were all Iren of the earth-god Keb and the sky-goddess Nut, born on five consecutive days added on at the end of the year (the flied epagomenal days).
Later generations reconciled these radictions by assuming the existence of two Horuses, one, brother of Osiris, Seth and Isis, being named Haroeris, i.e.
NEPHTHYS, the sister of Osiris and wife of Seth, daughter of Keb and Nut, plays a considerable rfile in the Osiris story.
Sometimes, as in the case of the feast of Osiris in Abydos, a veritable drama would be enacted, in which the whole history of the god, his sufferings and final triumph were represented in mimic form.
It was a veritable drama that was here enacted, and recalled in its incidents the story of Osiris, the divine proto type of all successive generations of the Egyptian dead.
This notion became so popular, that beside it all other views of the dead sink into insignificance; it permeates the funerary cult in all its stages, and from the Middle Kingdom onwards the dead man is regularly called the Osiris so-~d-so, just as though he were completely identical with the god.
One incident of the tale of Osiris acquired a deep ethical meaning in connection with the dead.
In a shrine sits Osiris, the ruler and judge of the dead, accompanied by forty-two assessors; and before him stands the balance on which the heart of the deceased man is to be weighed against Truth; Thoth stands behind and registers the result.
Osiris, like Orpheus, is torn in pieces, and his head floats down every year from Egypt to Byblus; the body of Attis, the Phrygian counterpart of Adonis, like that of Orpheus, does not suffer decay.
126, 127, 133; Plato, Cratylus, 402 A and Theaetetus, 152 E; Plutarch, Isis and Osiris, 45, 48; Arist.
Frazer, Adonis, Attis, Osiris (1907), p. 67: " Prophecy of the Hebrew type has not been limited to Israel; it is indeed a phenomenon of almost world-wide occurrence; in many lands and in many ages the wild, whirling words of frenzied men and women have been accepted as the utterances of an in-dwelling deity.
The Osiris cycle of legends seems to belong to these people.
The Egyptian name was A bdu, " the hill of the symbol or reliquary," in which the sacred head of Osiris was preserved.
Mineptah (Merenptah) added a great Hypogeum of Osiris to the temple of Seti.
The worship here of Osiris in his various forms begins in the XIIth dynasty and becomes more important in later times, so that at last the whole place was considered as sacred to him (Abydos, ii.
They again gave birth to Keb and Nut, from whom ieir turn sprang Osiris and Seth, Isis and Nephthys.
It is apparently through the funeral that Osiris so early took a firm hold on the imagination of people; for at a very ancient date he was identified with y dead king, and it needed but a slight extension of this idea iakehim into a king of the dead.
In later times the moral ct of his tale was doubtless the main cause of its continued alarity; Osiris was named Onnophris, the good Being excellence, and Seth was contrasted with him as the author the root of all evil.
His fusion with Horus and Etom has already been noted; further we find an Ammon-Re, a Sobk-Re, a Khnum-Re; and Month, Onouris, Show and Osiris are all described as possessing the attributes of the sun.
So too in Abydos, his later home, Osiris was identified with Khante-Amentiu (Khentamenti, Khentamenthes), the chief of those who are in the West, a name that was given to a vaguely-conceived but widely-venerated divinity ruler of the dead.
Plutarch in his treatise on Isis and Osiris well exemplifies this standpoint: for him every god and every rite is symbolic of some natural or moral truth.
Serapis was a god imported by the first Ptolemy from Sinope on the Black Sea, who soon lost his own identity by assimilation with Osiris-Apis, the bull revered in Memphis.
She sided with Isis and aided her to bring Osiris back to life.