Direction for a length of 2000 Oscan ft.
In the 3rd century we find it issuing coins with an Oscan legend, but in 211 B.C. it shared the fate of Capua.
Like Umbrian also, but unlike Latin and Oscan, it has degraded all the diphthongs into simple vowels (Volscian se parallel to Oscan svai; Volscian deue, Old Latin and Oscan deivai or deiuoi).
This phenomenon of what might have been taken for a piece of Umbrian text appearing in a district remote from Umbria and hemmed in by Latins on the north and Oscan-speaking Samnites on the south is a most curious feature in the geographical distribution of the Italic dialects, and is clearly the result of some complex historical movements.
Buck's Oscan and Umbrian Grammar.
Save for the consequences of these phonetic changes, Umbrian morphology and syntax exhibit no divergence from Oscan that need be mentioned here, save perhaps two peculiar perfect-formations with -1- and -nci-; as in ampelust, fut.
And Oscan, (3) Messapian, (4) North Oscan, (5) Volscian, (6) East Italic or Sabellic, (7) Latinian, (8) Sabine, (9) Iguvine or Umbrian, (10) Gallic, (11) Ligurian and (12) Venetic.
It would follow, on the other hand, that what is called Oscan represented the language of the invading Sabines (more correctly Safines), whose racial affinities would seem to be of a distinctly more northern cast, and to mark them, like the Dorians or Achaeans in Greece, as an early wave of the invaders who more than once in later history havevitally influenced the fortunes of the tempting southern land into which they forced their way.
At this time they were speaking Oscan as well as Greek, and two of three Oscan inscriptions in Greek alphabet still testify to the language spoken in the town in the 3rd century B.C. We know, however, that the Bruttians, though at this date speaking the same language (Oscan) as the Samnite tribe of the Lucani, were not actually akin to them.
The more conspicuous buildings are the ancient Gothic cathedral (restored in 1866, and again in 1870 after the interior was destroyed by fire), with its lofty tower, the cavalry barracks, the ex-convent of the Capuchins at a little distance from the city, and the seminary in which are preserved the famous Oscan inscription known as the Cippus Abellanus (from Abella, the modern Avella, q.v.) and some Latin inscriptions relating to a treaty with Nola regarding a joint temple of Hercules.
Whatever punishment Sulla may have inflicted, Nola, though it lost much of its importance, remained a municipium with its own institutions and the use of the Oscan language.
ATELLA, an ancient Oscan town of Campania, 9 m.
Like Ennius he probably belonged to an Oscan stock, and was born at Brundusium, which had become a Roman colony in 244.
Its history in the Samnite period is unknown; but the coins of Fistelia (or Fistlus in Oscan) probably belong to Puteoli, as Mommsen thought.
Apparently the same unit is found (18) at Heraclea in Lucania, 21.86; and, as the general foot of the South Italians, or Oscan foot (18), best defined by the 100 feet square being (3/10)ths of the jugerum, and therefore = 10.80 or half of 21.60.
Remains of fine villas have been found about half a mile to the east of the modern town, and also the remains of a temple to the genius of Stabiae, which no doubt occupied the same site as it had done in Oscan times.
Was it most nearly akin to Latin or to Oscan or again to Umbrian and Volscian?
The conclusion, therefore, to which the evidence appears to lead us is that in, say, the 7th century, B.C., the Safines spoke a language not differing in any important particulars from that of the Samnites, generally known as Oscan; and that when this warlike tribe combined with the people of the Latian plain to found or fortify or enlarge the city of Rome, and at the end of the 6th century to drive out from it the Etruscans, who had in that century become its masters, they imposed upon the new community many of their own usages, especially within the sphere of politics, but in the end adopted the language of Latium henceforth known as lingua Latina, just as the Normans adopted the language of the conquered English.
Send), in allusion to the journey of Heracles with the oxen of Geryon, but modern authorities refer it to the Oscan pompa (five).
It was of a mixed character; both Oscan and Greek inscriptions are still found up to the last, and, though there is no trace whatever of Christianity, evidences of the presence of Jews are not lacking - such are a wall-painting, probably representing the Judgment of Solomon, and a scratched inscription on a wall, "Sodoma, Gomora."
Catulus (78 B.C.), and therefore belongs to the Oscan period of the city, before the introduction of the Roman colony.
The most interesting of these are such as are written in the Oscan dialect, which appears to have continued in official use down to the time when the Roman colony was introduced by Sulla.
From that time the Latin language was certainly the only one officially employed, though Oscan may have still been spoken by a portion at least of the population.
As.) Oscan Inscriptions.
844, it is the duoviri who build the small theatre), but does appear in the Oscan inscriptions.
On the other hand, the good condition of many of the painted Oscan inscriptions at the times when they were first uncovered (1797 onwards) and their subsequent decay and the number of Oscan graffiti appear to make it probable that at the Christian era Oscan was still spoken in the town.
The two languages undoubtedly existed side by side during the last century B.C., Latin being alone recognized officially and in society, while Oscan was preserved mainly by intercourse with the country folk who frequented the market.
Thus beside many Latin programmata later than those just mentioned we have similar inscriptions in Oscan, addressed to Oscan-speaking voters, where Illlner.
An interesting stone containing nine cavities for measures of capacity found in Pompeii and now preserved in the Naples Museum with Oscan inscriptions erased in antiquity shows that the Oscan system of measurement was modified so as to correspond more closely with the Roman, about 14 B.C., by the duoviri, who record their work in a Latin inscription (C.I.L.
793; for the Oscan see Ital.
Familiar with Greek as the language in common use among the cultivated classes of his district, and with Oscan, the prevailing dialect of lower Italy, he further acquired a knowledge of Latin; to use his own expression (Gellius xvii.
Aquila), and that this dialect closely resembled the Oscan of Lucania and Samnium, though presenting some peculiarities of its own, which warrant, perhaps, the use of the name North Oscan.
Paelignian and this group of inscriptions generally form a most important link in the chain of the Italic dialects, as without them the transition from Oscan to Umbrian would be completely lost.
(7) Very great interest attaches to the form penkaheh - which Torp very probably identifies with the Oscan stem pompaio - which is a derivative of the Indo-European numeral *penque " 5."
Much more important than the scanty remains of Faliscan is the Oscan alphabet.
That it took over the whole Chalcidian alphabet is rendered probable by the survival in Umbrian and Oscan, its daughter alphabets, of forms which are not found in Etruscan itself.
Oscan, in order to represent D, introduced later a form SJ, thus creating confusion between the symbols for d and for r.
Similarly it used 4 and z for the Chalcidian Umbrian borrowed the first, Oscan the second form.
The form for h was still closed ï¿½, which Etruscan passed on to Oscan, while Umbrian modified it to 0.
The form for m has five strokes; from a later form HA the Oscan form was borrowed.
Of the two sibilants, M and or S, Oscan adopted only Umbrian both M and the rounded form S.
Q is found on Etruscan inscriptions, but not in the alphabet series preserved; neither Umbrian nor Oscan has this form.
T appears in Etruscan as y, 7 t, and X; of these Umbrian borrows the first two, while Oscan has a form T like Latin.
Both Umbrian and Oscan devised two new symbols.
(1909), pp. 337 ff.) argues for a " proto-Tyrrhenian " alphabet from which Etruscan, Umbrian and Oscan descended as one group, and Faliscan and Latin as the other.
In Oscan, which had an o-sound, but no symbol for it, a new sign was invented by placing a dot between the legs of the symbol for u - V.
In other languages, like Oscan and Umbrian which are closely akin to Latin, or the Welsh branch of the Celtic languages, p occurs regularly without regard to the nature of the vowel following.
Thus, corresponding to the Latin quattuor, we find the Oscan petora, the Gaulish petor-ritum, " four-wheeler," the Welsh pedwar, " four," &c., while the Irish cethir, " four," corresponds more closely to the Latin.
An important Oscan inscription relates to a treaty with Nola, regarding a joint temple of Hercules, attributable to the 2nd century B.C. Under the early empire it had already become a colony and had perhaps been one since the time of Sulla.
Greek and Oscan tombs have also been found.