Since then various authors have incorporated the Thysanoptera with one of the large orders, some, following Linnaeus, regarding them as Hemiptera, others grouping with them the Orthoptera or Pseudoneurop- (The illustrations in this article are all after tera."
Injurious insects occur among the following orders: Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera (both heteroptera and homoptera), Orthoptera, Neuroptera and Thysanoptera.
Amongst Orthoptera we find many noxious insects, notably the locusts, which travel in vast cloud-like armies, clearing the whole country before them of all vegetable life.
In generalized biting insects, such as cockroaches and locusts (Orthoptera), the parts of a typical maxilla can be easily recognized in the labium.
Heymons (1895) on the Orthoptera, and munication with the outside.
In interpretations of Kowalevsky and Heider, and so on the whole do Orthoptera and Thysanura, as well as some others of the lower those of F.
This has been found to be the case in insects so widely different as Orthoptera and Aculeate Hymenoptera.
In Orthoptera, Heymons has demonstrated the existence of eleven pairs, the terminal pair becoming, however, soon united with the tenth.
The latter has established, for all the Palaeozoic insects, an order Palaeodictyoptera, there being a closer similarity between the fore-wings and the hind-wings than is to be seen in most living orders of Hexapoda, while affinities are shown to several of these orders - notably the Orthoptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata and Hemiptera.
The Plecoptera and Orthoptera agree in their numerous Malpighian tubes and in the development of a folding anal area in the hind-wing.
As shown by the number and variety of species, the Orthoptera are the most dominant order of this group. Eminently terrestrial in habit, the differentiation of their fore-wings and hindwings can be traced from Carboniferous, isopteroid ancestors through intermediate Mesozoic forms. The Plecoptera resemble the Ephemeroptera and Odonata in the aquatic habits of their larvae, and by the occasional presence of tufted thoracic gills in the imago exhibit an aquatic character unknown in any other winged insects.
Orders: Aptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Neuroptera, Orthoptera, Coleoptera.
Orders: Myriapoda, Thysanura, Parasita, Suctoria, Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Rhipiptera, Diptera.
Orders: Coleoptera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Rhipiptera, Anopleura, Thysanura.
Orders: Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Plecoptera, Isoptera, Corrodentia, Ephemoptera, Odonata, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Anoplura.
There are 8 families of Coleoptera, 6 of Orthoptera, 23 of Hymenoptera, 14 of Lepidoptera and 7 of Diptera.
EARWIG, an insect belonging to the Forficulidae, a family usually referred to the Orthoptera, but sometimes regarded as typifying a special order, to which the names Dermaptera, Dermatoptera and Euplexoptera have been given, in allusion to certain peculiarities in the structure of the wings in the species that possess them.
1, C, D) are well developed, being adapted, as in the more lowly winged in,ects,such as the Orthoptera, for biting.
Erichson (1839) and united with the Orthoptera, with which order some entomologists still associate them under the name of " Pseudoneuroptera."
More recently the subdivision of the Linnean Neuroptera has been carried still further by the separation of the caddis-flies and scorpion-flies as distinct orders (Trichoptera and Mecaptera respectively), and by the withdrawal of the " Pseudo-neuroptera " from the Orthoptera - with whose typical families they have little in common - and their division into a number of small orders.
And no student can doubt that the stone-flies are akin to Orthoptera and the caddis-flies to the Lepidoptera, while dragon-flies and May-flies stand in an isolated position with regard to all other insects.
They resemble the Orthoptera more nearly than do any other group of the Linnean Neuroptera, having the anal area of the hind-wings folding fanwise beneath the costal area and the whole hind-wing covered by the forewing when the insect is at rest, though the forewing is not firmer in texture than the hind-wing, as is the case in the Orthoptera.
The stone-flies further resemble the Orthoptera in their numerous Malpighian excretory tubes, which vary in number from twenty to sixty.
There are only six or eight Malpighian tubes - contrasting with the large number of these excretory organs found in the Orthoptera and Plecoptera.
Olivier subsequently used for the assemblage the name Orthoptera, which is now much better known than the earlier terms. W.
Kirby (1815) founded an order Dermaptera for the earwigs, which had formed part of de Geer's Dermaptera, accepting Olivier's term Orthoptera for the rest of the assemblage, and as modern research has shown that the earwigs undoubtedly deserve original separation from the cockroaches, grasshoppers, crickets, &c., this terminology will probably become established.
Erichson and other writers added to the Orthoptera a number of families which Linne had included in his order Neuroptera.
In the present article a short account of the characters of the Dermaptera and Orthoptera is given, while for details the reader is referred to special articles on the more interesting families or groups.
The Dermaptera and the Orthoptera agree in having welldeveloped mandibles, so that the jaws are adapted for biting; in the incomplete fusion of the second maxillae (which form the labium) so that the parts of a typical maxilla can be easily made out (see the description and figures of the cockroach' g.
The bulk of de Geer's " Dermaptera " form the order Orthoptera of modern systematists, which includes some Io,000 described species.
More important characters of the Orthoptera than the nature of the wings - characters in which they differ from After Marlatt, Ent.
In many Orthoptera this ovipositor is very long and conspicuous (fig.
- Six families of Orthoptera are here recognized, but most special students of the order consider that these should be rather regarded as super-families, and the number of families greatly multiplied.
There is general agreement as to the division of the Orthoptera into three sub-orders or tribes.
In this tribe are included Orthoptera with a large prothorax, whose eggs are enclosed in a common purse or capsule formed by the hardening of a maternal secretion.
The Orthoptera are an exceedingly interesting order of insects as regards their past history.
Kirby, Synomymic Catalogue of Orthoptera, pt.
For Orthoptera generally, see C. Brunner von Wattenwyl, Prodromus der europciischen Orthopteren (Leipzig, 1882), and Ann.
The Orthoptera have been largely used for anatomical and embryological researches, the more important of which are mentioned under Hexapoda (q.v.).
Of memoirs on special groups of Orthoptera may be mentioned here - J.
Burr, British Orthoptera (Huddersfield, 1897) D.
In insects of the order Orthoptera, departure from the normal in form and colour, carrying with it similarity to other living things, usually takes the line of protective resemblance to parts of plants.
Among the insects we find the Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Hemiptera and Coleoptera represented; cockroaches were particu.
Insect life is somewhat less remarkable; but besides a distinctive genus of Orthoptera (Jaquetia Hospodar), there are several kinds of weevils (Curculionidae) said to be peculiar to Rumania.