In Sparta children were flogged before the altar of Artemis Orthia till the blood flowed (Plutarch, Instit.
According to the Spartans, the image of Artemis was transported by Orestes and Iphigeneia to Laconia, where the goddess was worshipped as Artemis Orthia, the human sacrifices originally offered to her being abolished by Lycurgus and replaced by the flogging of youths (diamastigosis, Pausan.
According to Professor Ridgeway, however, the Turkish crescent, like that seen on modern horse-trappings, has nothing to do with the new moon, but is the result of the baseto-base conjunction of two claw or tusk amulets, an example of which has been brought to light during the excavations of the site of the temple of Artemis Orthia at Sparta (see Athenaeum, March 21, 1908).
Two curious epithets in this connexion deserve notice: Xvy03Eo a ("bound with withies"), derived from the legend that the image of Artemis Orthia was found in a thicket of withies, which twined round it and kept it upright (Xi yos is the agnus castus, and points to Artemis in her relation to women); and Cura-yxop. vr 7 ("the suspended"), probably a reference to the custom of hanging the mask or image of a vegetation-divinity on a tree to obtain fertility (Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, ii.
The custom of flogging youths at the altar of Artemis Orthia 1 at Limnaeum in Laconia, and the legend of Iphigeneia, herself another form of Artemis, connected with Artemis Taurica of the Tauric Chersonese, are usually supposed to point to early human sacrifice (but see Farnell).
As such she is Puom opos (" bringer of victory"); the title KoXacvis is possibly connected with 1 The site of the temple of Artemis Orthia was excavated by the British School of Archaeology at Athens (see Annual, 1906).
The old warlike spirit found an outlet .chiefly in the vigorous but peaceful contests held in the gymnasium, the ball-place, and the arena before the temple of Artemis Orthia: sometimes too it found a vent in actual campaigning, as when Spartans were enrolled for service against the Parthians by the emperors Lucius Verus, Septimius Severus and Caracalla.