The goddess, who embodied the idea of the city, was seated on a rock, crowned with towers, and having the river Orontes at her feet.
The possession of Syria gave him an opening to the Mediterranean, and he immediately founded here the new city of Antioch upon the Orontes as his chief seat of government.
But Strabo, Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as the y better Moslem geographers, drew the eastern only under the Graeco-Roman administration that we find a definite district known as Syria, and that was at first restricted to the Orontes basin.
Later, all that we understand by Syria came to be so known officially to the Romans and Byzantines; but the only province called simply Syria, without qualification, remained in the Orontes valley.
Akhma, over the northern end of which runs a single easy pass (Beilan) to the north-east angle of the Levant coast (Alexandretta), while at the southern end is a gap through which the Orontes turns sharply to the sea.
Al Ala, it defines the Orontes valley on the east.
The main stream flowing south is the Jordan, which fails to reach the sea, being absorbed into the great rift of the Ghor: but a smaller stream, the North Litani (called Kasimiya in its lower course), whose source lies very near that of Jordan, repeats the course of the Orontes on a minor scale and gets through the western mountain system to the sea near Sur (Tyre).
Those which occur on the course of the principal rivers are described under Orontes and Jordan.
The best known of these Graben is that of the Jordan, but the upper part of the Orontes lies in a similar depression, which is, indeed, very probably the continuation of the Jordan-Araba trough.
For the rest, Syria needs irrigation; and since neither of its larger rivers, Orontes or Jordan, flowing as these do in deep beds, is of much use for this purpose, all Mid-Syria, except the lacustrine oases, is a region mainly occupied by pastures, and yielding only thin cereal crops.
Phoenicia and the Lebanon have the densest population, over 70 to the square mile, while Palestine, the north part of the western plateau east of Jordan, the oases of Damascus and Aleppo, the Orontes valley, and parts of Cornmagene, are well peopled.
Syria up to and beyond the Euphrates is called more precisely Sahi (or Zahi), and is regarded as consisting of the following parts: (r) Rutenu, practically the same as Palestine (occasionally Palestine with Coelesyria is called Upper Rutenu, as distinguished from Lower Rutenu extending to the Euphrates); (2) the land of the Kheta (sometimes reckoned as belonging to Rutenu with Kadesh on the Orontes as its capital in the Ramesside period; (3) Naharina, the land on both sides of the Euphrates (extending, strictly speaking, beyond the Syrian limits).
It was centred on the upper Orontes (Kadesh) and had comparatively free access to Palestine and the Egyptian border.
IIamath in the valley of the Orontes, at the mouth of the Buka`a valley, was from an early period one of the most important places in Syria; according to the Bible, its original inhabitants were Canaanites.
64, " Tahtim-hodshi," based on the Septuagint version -H y XETTElµ KaSi i S be accepted, we hear of them at Kadesh on Orontes; and some minor Hittite cities are mentioned, e.g.
Jessup, rediscovered, at Hamah (Hamath) on Orontes, five basaltic blocks bearing pictographic inscriptions in relief, one of which had been reported by J.
While Sayce has said roundly that common sense demands the acceptance of all as the work of the Hittites, who were the dominant caste throughout a loosely-knit empire extending at one time from the Orontes to the Aegean, Messerschmidt has stated with equal dogmatism that the Hittites proper were only one people out of many 1 in N.
That flowing northwards, El-`Asi, is the ancient Orontes; the other is the Litany.
Neither the Orontes nor the Litany has any important affluent.
By the 6th century it was evidently virtually independent again; its Christianization had begun with the immigration of Monothelite sectaries, flying from persecution in the Antioch district and Orontes valley.
Shortly after the edict by which the king had proclaimed his alliance with Thebes, and the conditions of the general peace which he was going to impose upon Greece, his weakness became evident, for since;56 all the satraps of Asia Minor (Datames, Ariobarzanes, Mausolus, Orontes, Artabazus) were in rebellion again, in close alliance with Athens, Sparta and Egypt.
On the defeat of Josiah at Megiddo his younger brother Jehoahaz (or Shallum) was chosen by the Judaeans, but the Egyptian conquerer Necho summoned him to his headquarters at Riblah (south of Hamath on the Orontes) and removed him to Egypt, appointing in his stead Eliakim, whose name ("El[God] raiseth up") was changed to its better-known synonym, Jehoiakim.
ORONTES, the ancient name of the chief Syrian river, also called DRACO, TYPHON and Axrus, the last a native form, from whose revival, or continuous employment in native speech, has proceeded the modern name `Asi ("rebel"), which is variously interpreted by Arabs as referring to the stream's impetuosity, to its unproductive channel, or to the fact that it flows away from Mecca.
The Orontes rises in the great springs of Labweh on the east side of the Buka`a, or inter-Lebanon district, very near the fountains of the southward-flowing Litani, and it runs due north, parallel with the coast, falling 2000 ft.
This central Orontes valley ends at the rocky barrier of Jisr al-Hadid, where the river is diverted to the west, and the plain of Antioch opens.
Of the modern Antakia (Antioch) the Orontes plunges S.W.
Mainly unnavigable and of little use for irrigation, the Orontes derives its historical importance solely from the convenience of its valley for traffic from N.
PERDICCAS, the name of three kings of Macedonia, who reigned respectively c. 700 B.C., c. 454-413 B.C., and 364-359 B.C., and of one of Alexander the Great's generals, son of Orontes, a descendant of the independent princes of the province of Orestis.
Laodicea of Libanus was founded by Seleucus Nicator on the plain south-east of Hemesa (Horns) in the region of the upper Orontes, and became an important city; its coins of the 2nd century B.C. bear the interesting legend in Phoenician, " Of Laodicea which is in Canaan " (NSI.
In the north of Syria four cities stood pre-eminent above the rest, (1) Antioch on the Orontes, the Seleucid capital; (2) Seleucia-in-Pieria near the mouth of the Orontes, which guarded the approach to Antioch from the sea; (3) Apamea (mod.
Famia), on the middle Orontes, the military headquarters of the kingdom; and (4) Laodicea " on sea " (ad mare), which had a commercial importance in connexion with the export of Syrian wine.
(1) A vilayet of Syria, constituted as recently as 1888, which stretches along the sea-coast from Jebel el-Akra, south of the Orontes, to the Nahr Zerka, south of Mount Carmel, and towards the south extends from the Mediterranean to the Jordan.
He succeeded in breaking the power of Damascus, which had long been devastating his land, and extended his kingdom from Hamath on the Orontes to the Dead Sea.
Orontes), whose granite peak rises W.
HOMS, or Hums (anc. Emesa or Emessa, near the Hittite Kadesh), a town of Syria, on the right bank of the Orontes, and capital of a sanjak in the vilayet of Syria (Damascus).
The importance of the place arises from its command of the great north road from Egypt, Palestine and Damascus by the Orontes valley.
A succession of gardens bordered the Orontes, and the vineyards were remarkable for their abundant yield of grapes.
400 in the odour of sanctity in a convent at Ribla on the Orontes, whence orthodoxy spread over mid-Syria.
Such lands as Cyprus, Cilicia and Syria, such cities as Citium, Soli, Heraclea in Pontus, Sidon, Carthage, Seleucia on the Tigris, Apamea by the Orontes, furnished the school with its scholars and presidents; Tarsus, Rhodes and Alexandria became famous as its university towns.
Farther south, the Takht-i-Bilkis, in the Afshar district, rises to 11,200 ft., the Elvend (ancient Orontes), near Hamadan, to 11,600.
HAMAH, the Hamath of the Bible, a Hittite royal city, situated in the narrow valley of the Orontes, 110 English miles N.
The Orontes flows winding past the city and is spanned by four bridges.