The first great result of recent geogra phical research has been to modify pre-existing ideas of results vestigate the orography of the vast central region represented by in.
The orography of the Aldan region is little known; but travellers who journey from the Aldan (tributary of the Lena) to the Amur or to the Sea of Okhotsk have to cross the same plateau and its border-range.
3 See " General Sketch of the Orography of Siberia," with map and " Sketch of the Orography of Minusinsk, &c.," by Prince P. A.
The orography of this alpine region is very imperfectly known; but the chains have a predominant direction from south-west to north-east.
The orography sketched above explains the great development of the river-systems of Siberia and the uniformity of their course.
Among his other works may be named Paroles d'un revolte (1884); La Conquete du pain (1888); L' Anarchic: sa philosophie, son ideal (1896); The State, its Part in History (1898); Fields, Factories and Workshops (1899); Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1900); Mutual Aid, a Factor of Evolution (1902); Modern Science and Anarchism (Philadelphia, 1903); The Desiccation of Asia (1904); The Orography of Asia (1904); and Russian Literature (1905).
The break in the continuity of the Alpine chain marked by the deep valley, the Vintschgau, of the upper Adige (Etsch) is one of the most remarkable features in the orography of the Alps.
In order to appreciate the orography of the island the following sections of Sumatra should be discriminated one from another: (1) The valley of the Achin or Atjeh River.
Its orography and geological structure are imperfectly known.
In 1864 was founded the Palestine Exploration Fund, under the auspices of which an ordnance survey map of the country was completed (published 1881), and accompanied by volumes containing memoirs on the topography, orography, hydrography, archaeology, fauna and flora, and other details.
For orography and geology see an article by P. Verri in Boll.
The orography of Portugal cannot be scientifically studied except in relation to that of Spain, for there is no dividing line between the principal Portuguese ranges and the highlands of Galicia, Leon and Spanish Estremadura.
Little is known of the orography of the eastern peninsula.