The picturesque Bureya Mountains above the Amur, the forest-clad Sikhota-alin on the Pacific, and the volcanic chains of Kamchatka belong, however, to quite another orographical construction, being the border-ridges of the terraces by which the great plateau formation descends to the depths of the Pacific Ocean.
It is owing to these leading orographical features - divined by Carl Ritter, but only recently ascertained and established as fact by geographical research - that so many of the great Rivers.
With broad plateaus which join those of central Russia, but their orographical relations to other upheavals must be more closely studied before they can be definitely pronounced on.
Owing to the orographical structure of the East-European plains, the river systems have become more than usually prominent and.
The orographical characteristics of the Caucasus are described in detail under that heading.
But to use such terms for what is not only an independent, but also an older, orographical formation than the Caucasus tends to perpetuate confusion in geographical nomenclature.
Their variety is considerable, for they are designed to illustrate physical and political geography, travel and navigation, trade and commerce, and, in fact, every subject connected with geographical distribution and capable of being illustrated by means of a map. We thus have (1) physical maps in great variety, including geological, orographical and hydrographical maps, maps illustrative of the geographical distribution of meteorological phenomena, of plants and animals, such as are to be found in Berghaus's " Physical Atlas," of which an enlarged English edition is published by J.
Maps of Newfoundland, orographical as well as geological, scale I: 1, 584, 200, have been published.
5 The word " longitudinal " is here used in an orographical, not a geological sense.
This arises chiefly from the orographical structure; the vast plateau of Central Asia prevents the moderating influence of the sea from being felt.
Owing to its orographical configuration the river system of Hungary presents several characteristic features.
Thus the orographical features of the country correspond broadly with the geological divisions.
Although the use of the name is thus restricted in geographical usage, the mountain system so designated does, as a fact, extend eastwards as far as the great depression of Tsaidam (say 95° E.), though it is uncertain whether its direct orographical continuation eastwards is to be identified with the Astin-tagh, or, as F.
In the broad orographical disposition of the ranges there is considerable similarity between north Tibet and west Persia, in that in both cases the ranges are crowded together in the west, but spread out wider as they advance towards the east.
Although these several ranges, or systems of ranges, differ considerably in their orographical characteristics, the following description will apply generally to the entire region from the Astin-tagh southwards to the Arka-tagh.
One of the most remarkable orographical features of the state are the great mountain "parks" - North, Estes, Middle, South and San Luis - extending from the northern to the southern border of the state, and lying (with the exception of Middle Park) just east of the continental divide.
The orographical division of the central lowlands bears comparison in formation with the coastal belt of marine deposits to the north.
The Smaland highlands abut southward upon the plains of Skane, the last of the main orographical divisions, which coincides, roughly with the old province of Skane (Scania).
Geologically, the Himalaya may be divided into three zones which correspond more or less with orographical divisions.
East of 94° the range is continued by a double series of mountain chains, all of which exhibit less sharply marked orographical features and are at considerably lower elevations.
The mutual relations and exact orographical connexions of several of the ranges east and north of the Khan-tengri group are not yet elucidated.
(St Petersburg, 1877), and Geological and Orographical Description of Turkestan, 1874-1880 (in Russ.; St Petersburg, 1886); S.
Mushketov's Geological and Orographical Description of Turkestan (in Russian, St Petersburg, 1866) is still a standard authority.
It will be enough to say here that the mountainous region belongs to the great orographical flange which runs from south-west to northeast along the north-western margin of the great plateau of Central Asia.
In both orographical systems the principal rivers start nearly all together from a central nucleus, and in both cases they radiate to opposite quarters of the compass; but whereas in the Alps the Rhone and the Rhine, flowing south-west and north-east respectively, follow longitudinal valleys, and the Aar and the Ticino, flowing north-west and south-east respectively, follow transverse valleys, in the Caucasus the streams which flow south-west and north-east, namely, the headwaters of the Rion and the Terek, travel along transverse valleys, and those of the Kura and the Kuban, flowing south-east and north-west respectively, traverse longitudinal valleys.
The study of the scenery of England and Wales as a whole, or the study of orographical and geological maps of the country, allows a broad distinction to be drawn between the types of land-forms in the west and in the east.