The nitro group behaves very similarly to the hydroxyl group. The effect of varying the position of the nitro group in the molecule is well marked, and conclusions may be drawn as to the orientation of the groups from a knowledge of the crystal form; a change in the symmetry of the chemical molecule being often attended by a loss in the symmetry of the crystal.
Far from having impressed its own direction on the orientation of the chain at large, this crest is merely the resultant of secondary agencies by which the primitive mass has been eroded and lessened in bulk, and though its importance from a hydrographic point of view is still considerable, its geological significance is practically nil.
Inverse orientation of the tissues, x, Xylem.
It should be noted that he places Syene only two degrees to the east of Alexandria instead of three degrees, the actual meridian distance between the two places; a difference which would result from an error of only 7° is the orientation of the map used by Ptolemy.
In astronomy, we are principally concerned with the orientation of points on a sphere - the so-called celestial sphere - with regard to certain planes and points within the sphere; this subject is treated in the article Astronomy (Spherical).
The chief distinctive characters of the sporogenous hyphae are their orientation, usually vertical; their limited apical growth; their peculiar branching, form, colour, contents, consistency; and their spore-production.
The resulting Z+R equations are not as a rule easy of application, owing to the fact that the moments and products of inertia A, B, C, F, G, H are not constants but vary in conse- 0 quence of the changing orientation of the body with respect to the co-ordinate axes.
Its determination is difficult, because it is involved with questions of the changing orientation of the earth's axis of rotation.
This being assumed, the hope of the writer is that the exposition will afford the student an insight into the theory which may facilitate his orientation, and convey to the general reader with a certain amount of mathematical training a clear idea of the methods by which conclusions relating to it are drawn.
They may, however, be distinguished by the fact that on previous transmission through a quarter-wave plate this property is retained in the case of common light, while with the two other types the relative intensity of the streams depends upon the orientation of the rhomb, and with circularly polarized light one stream may be made to vanish.
The names and orientation of the constellations therein adopted are, with but few exceptions, identical with those used at the present day; and as it cannot be doubted that Ptolemy made only very few modifications in the system of Hipparchus, the names were adopted at least three centuries before the Almagest was compiled.
Thus the structure of an old thickened root approximates to that of an old thickened stem, and so far as the vascular tissue is concerned can often only be distinguished from the latter by the position and orientation of the primary xylems. The cambium of the primary root, together with the tissues which it forms, is always directly continuous with that of the primary stem, just in the same way as the tissues of the primary stele.
The carboxyl group constitutes another convenient startingpoint for the orientation of many types of organic compounds.
It is necessary, therefore, to avoid reactions involving such intermolecular migrations when determining the orientation of aromatic compounds.
The orientation of higher substitution derivatives is determined by considering the diand tri-substitution compounds into which they can be transformed.
The results obtained for the (1.2) and (1.4) chlorbenzoic acids also illustrate the dependence of crystal form and structure on the orientation of the molecule.
These cracks coincide with planes of easy separation or of gliding in the crystal; they are especially useful in helping to determine the crystallographic orientation of a cleavage flake of mica when crystal faces are absent.
Flattening of particles by compression, orientation of particles by flow and formation of laminar crystals, the fundamental explanation of slaty cleavage is found.
In geometry, and in geometrical crystallography, the term denotes a line which serves to aid the orientation of a figure.
The response to the action of light in diatropic leaves is, according to Haberlandt, due to the presence of epidermal cells which are shaped like a lens, or with lens-shaped thickenings of the cuticle, through which convergence of the light rays takes place and causes a differential illumination of the lining layer of protoplasm on the basal walls of the epidermal cells, by which the stimulus resulting in the orientation of the leaf is brought about.
Fragments of Doric columns and foundations were discovered, probably intended for the temple begun by Peisistratus, the orientation of which differed slightly from that of the later structure.
He defined structure " as the manner of the mutual linking of the atoms in the molecule," but denied that any such structure could give information as to the orientation of the atoms in space.
To Jaeger is due the determination of the topic parameters of certain haloid-derivatives, and, while showing that the morphotropic effects closely resemble those occasioned by methyl, he established the important fact that, in general, the crystal form depended upon the orientation of the substituents in the benzene complex.
The property of orientation, in virtue of which a freely suspended magnet points approximately to the geographical north and south, is not referred to by any European writer before the 12th century, though it is said to have been known to the Chinese at a much earlier period.
This result is inconsistent with the aether remaining at rest, unless we assume that the dimensions of the moving system depend, though to an extent so small as to be not otherwise detectable, on its orientation with regard to the aether that is streaming through it.
Its orientation differs from that of all the other buildings above mentioned, being not from N.
The orientation of each was from west-south-west to east-north-east, one being south-south-east of the other.
We may, for instance, employ the three Cartesian co-ordinates of a particular point 0 of the body, and three angular co-ordinates which express the orientation of the body with respect to 0.
One of the important functions of a fold is its direction; this of course depends upon the orientation of the axial plane.
Aglaosthenes or Agaosthenes, an early writer, knew Ursa minor as Kvv600vpa, Cynosura, and recorded the translation of Aquila; Epimenides the Cretan (c. 600 B.C.) recorded the translation of Capricornus and the star Capella; Pherecydes of Athens (c. 500-450 B.C.) recorded the legend of Orion, and stated the astronomical fact that when Orion sets Scorpio rises; Aeschylus (525-456 B.C.) and Hellanicus of Mytilene (c. 496-411 B.C.) narrate the legend of the seven Pleiades - the daughters of Atlas; and the latter states that the Hyades are named either from their orientation, which resembles v (upsilon), " or because at their rising or setting Zeus rains "; and Hecataeus of Miletus (c. 470 B.C.) treated the legend of the Hydra.
In the first place, a cyhindroid can be constructed so as to have its axis coincident with the common perpendicular to the axes of the two given screws and to satisfy thi-ee other conditions, for the position of the centre, the parameter, and the orientation about the axis are still at our disposal.