In 1857 Pasteur decisively proved that fermentation was a physiological process, for he showed that the yeast which produced fermentation was no dead mass, as assumed by Liebig, but consisted of living organisms capable of growth and multiplication.
This discovery was of great importance to the zymo-technical industries, for it showed that bacteria are not the only undesirable organisms which may occur in yeast.
There are two distinct types of fermentation: (1) those brought about by living organisms (organized ferments), and (2) those brought about by non-living or unorganized ferments (enzymes).
Liquids is a well-known phenomenon and common to all micro-organisms. A free still surface with a direct access of air are the necessary conditions.
Portions most liable to destruction, those parts between the tide marks, were found perfectly sound, and showed no signs of the ravages of marine organisms. Other valuable timber trees of the eastern portion of the continent are the blackbutt, tallow-wood, spotted gum, red gum, mahogany, and blue gum, eucalyptus; and the turpentine (Syncarpialaurifolia), which has proved to be more resistant to the attacks of teredo than any other timber and is largely used in wharf construction in infested waters.
The disease is due to poisoning by micro-organisms produced by deteriorated maize, and can be combated by care in ripening, drying and storing the maize.
Many objects in nature, organisms especially, seem to resemble the works of human design; there fore with high probability we infer a designing mind behind nature, adequate to the production of these special results.
Might one suggest that organisms seem at least to be a working up of inorganic matter for new ends, viz.
At present, therefore, classifications of the Hydromedusae have a more or less tentative character, and are liable to revision with increased knowledge of the life-histories of these organisms. Many groups bear at present two names, the one representing the group as defined by polyp-characters, the other as defined by medusa-characters.
Pelagic organisms, floating on the surface of the open sea, propelling themselves feebly by the pumping movements of the umbrella produced by contraction of the sub-umbral musculature, and capturing their prey with their tentacles.
They may bear accessory filaments or tentilla (f'), covered thickly with batteries of nematocysts, to which these organisms owe their great powers of -offence and defence.
In a remarkable essay 3 Meckel remarks: ' ` There is no good physiologist who has not been struck by the observation that the original form of all organisms is one and the 1 " 11 s'agit donc de prouver que la serie qui constitute l'echelle animale reside essentiellement dans la distribution des masses principales qui la composent et non dans celle des especes ni meme touj ours dans celle des genres."
The resin contains, in addition to the beautifully preserved plant-structures, numerous remains of insects, spiders, annelids, crustaceans and other small organisms which became enveloped while the exudation was fluid.
This is especially the case in the lichens (symbiotic organisms composed of a fungal mycelium in association with algal cells), which are usually exposed to very severe fluctuations in external conditions.
The study of simple organisms, many of which consist of nothing but a little mass of protoplasm, exhibiting a very rudimentary degree of differentiation, so far as our methods enable us to determine any at all, shows that the duties of existence can be discharged in the absence of any cell-wall.
Those organisms which possess the latter are a little higher in the scale of life than those which remain unclothed by it, but a comparison of the behaviour of the two quickly enables us to say that the membrane is of but secondary importance, and that for those which possess it, it is nothing more than a protective covering for the living substance.
Cellulose, the material of which vegetable cell-walls are almost universally composed, at any rate in their early condition, is known to occur, though only seldom, among animal organisms. Such forms as Volvox and the group of the Myxomycetes have been continually referred to both kingdoms, and their true systematic position is still a subject of controversy.
Differences connected with the mode of supply of nutritive material do exist, but they are mainly correlated with the structure of the organisms, which makes the method of absorption different.
The processes of putrefaction may be alluded to as affording an instance of such a power in the vegetable organisms. At the same time it must be remembered that the secretion of enzymes by Bacteria is of widespread occurrence.
Some wound in the succulent tissues has become infected by the organisms referred to, and their continued action prevents healing.
Within it or its modifications all the vital phen.omena of which living organisms are capable have their origin.
We find the ultimate explanation of this in the facts that all organisms vary, and that their variations are inherited and, if useful, perpetuated.
If these change, as we know they have changed, the organisms must change too, or perish.
Exclude every trace of these organisms, and no change occurs.
It was in the year 1886 that Hellriegel and Wilfarth first published in Germany the results of investigations in which they demonstrated that, through the agency of micro-organisms dwelling in nodular outgrowths on the roots of ordinary leguminous plants, the latter are enabled to assimilate the free nitrogen of the air.
Rather than lump genomics and genetically modified organisms (GMO) into the upcoming chapter where I list technologies that will transform agriculture, I chose to address them here because a topic so controversial and misunderstood warrants extra time to sort through.