Cambrian, Ordovician and Silurian beds have been recognized, the Upper Cambrian consisting of a limestone which is very rich in metalliferous ores (especially galena and calamine).
Contemporaneous volcanic rocks are associated with the Ordovician beds and with the Rhaetic sandstones in several places.
The higher steppes, as far as they are known, consist of Ordovician and Cambrian rocks, with an average elevation of 1500 to 3000 ft.
The breaking up of the old Archean foundation block began in Cambrian and Ordovician times.
Marine Ordovician rocks were deposited along the same general course.
This Silurian sea was less extensive than the Ordovician in Victoria; but it appears to have been wider in New South Wales and in Queensland.
The Ordovician and Silurian systems are widely developed, and it is most probable that, with the exception of the Archean continents of Finland and the S, the sea covered the whole of Russia.
Little is known of the early geological history of Asia beyond the fact that a large part of the continent was covered by the sea during the Cambrian and Ordovician periods.
Here the folded Archean rocks are overlaid by Cambrian and Ordovician beds, which still lie for the most part flat and undisturbed.
Besides the plant beds extensive outflows of basic lava rest directly upon the Cambrian and Ordovician strata.
In the northern unfolded region great flows of basic lava lie directly upon the Cambrian and Ordovician beds of Siberia, but are certainly in part of Tertiary age.
Undue stress is often laid on the fact that Lingula has come down to us apparently unchanged since Cambrian times, whilst Crania, and forms very closely resembling Discina and Rhynchonella, are found from the Ordovician strata onwards.
The Gasteropod Capulus, whilst most of the invertebrate classes were represented in the Ordovician by forms which do not differ from their existing representatives in any important respect.
One of the Asaphidae allied to Illaenus, from the Ordovician of East Gothland, Sweden.
- Restoration of Triarthrus Becki, Green, as determined by Beecher from specimens obtained from the Utica Slates (Ordovician), New York.
The crystalline rocks are succeeded by beds which have been referred to the Cambrian and Silurian systems. In the valley of the Trombetas, one of the northern tributaries of the Amazon, fossils have been found which indicate either the top of the Ordovician or the bottom of the Silurian.
In the Maecuru, another northern affluent, graptolites of Ordovician age have been discovered, and Silurian fossils are said to have been found in the Maraca.
In the latter range a few Ordovician fossils have been found, but in general the oldest strata which have yielded organic remains belong to the Cretaceous system.
Gneiss and granite occur; Ordovician fossils have been found in the Upper Shan States, and Carboniferous fossils in Tenasserim and near Moulmein.
The series is now placed at the top of the Ordovician System, above the Llandeilo beds.
See Caradoc Series and Ordovician System.
From the geological formation here the name Trenton is applied to the upper series of the Ordovician (or Lower Silurian) system, and, particularly, to the lowest stage of this series.
The Heteroptera can be traced back farther than any other winged insects if the fossil Protocimex silurica Moberg, from the Ordovician slates of Sweden is rightly regarded as the wing of a bug.
In 1892 the phosphates of Tennessee, derived from Ordovician limestones, came into the market.
No Cambrian rocks have as yet been discovered, but the Ordovician system is represented by the Aorere beds in the north-western part of the South Island.
Upon the folded slates and schists which constitute these inliers the Devonian rests with marked unconformity; but north of the ridge of Condroz Ordovician and Silurian beds make their appearance.
Until comparatively recent times the molluscs were considered as appearing on the limits of the Cambrian and Ordovician; but Charles D.
Recent discoveries of vertebrates are of the same significance, the most primitive fishes being traced to the Ordovician or base of the Silurian, 2 which proves that we shall discover more 2 Professor Bashford Dean doubts the fish characters of these Ordovic Rocky Mountain forms. Frech admits their fish character but considers the rocks infaulted Devonic.
Ordovician System.The succeeding Ordovician (Lower Silurian) system of rocks is closely connected with the Cambrian, geographically, stratigraphically and faunally.
The Ordovician system contains much more 9~ S~ ~ 1~
The succession of formations in that state is as follows Upper Ordovician (or J and Indiana).
Middle Ordovician (or I Trenton limestone.
Ordovician Mohawkian) -~ Black River limestone.
Lower Ordovician (or I Chazy limestone.
The oil and gas of Ohio and eastern Indiana come from the middle portion of the Ordovician system.
The fossils of the Ordovician system show that life made great progress during the, period, in numbers both of individuals and of species.
The departure of the Ordovician life from that of the Cambrian was perhaps most pronounced in the great development of the molluscs and crinoids (including cystoids), but corals were also abundant for the first time, and graptolites came into prominence.
This and other corroborative facts imply a widespread emergence of land at the close of the Ordovician period.
As a result of this emergence the stratigraphic break between the Ordovician and the Silurian is one of the greatest in the whole Palaeozoic group.
Graptolites had declined notably as compared with the Ordovician, and the trilobites passed their climax before the end of the period.
As in the case of the Ordovician and the Silurian, the New York section has become a standard with which the system in other parts of the country is commonly compared.
In many places in the west they rest on what appear to be Ordovician beds, but without unconformity.
The explanation of the apparent conformity of the strata from the Cambrian to the Pennsylvanian in some parts of the west, with no fossils defining with certainty any horizon between the Ordovician and the Mississippian, is one of the open problems in the geology of the United States.
The Ordovician and Silurian are absent here, and the Devonian rests unconformably upon the Cambrian; but along the northern margin of the Palaeozoic area, Ordovician and Silurian rocks appear, and beds of similar age are also exposed farther north where the rivers have cut through the overlying Tertiary deposits.
The Cambrian, for example, is exposed at Leimitz near Hof in the Frankenwald, and the important coal-field of the Saar lies on the southern side of the Hunsruck, while Ordovician and Silurian beds have been found in several localities.
1.2.1 Archean Rocks 1.2.2 Eastern or Younger Schists 1.2.3 Torridonian Sandstone 1.2.4 Cambrian 1.2.5 Ordovician and Silurian 1.2.6 Old Red Sandstone 1.2.7 Carboniferous 1.2.8 Permian 1.2.9 Triassic 1.2.10 Jurassic 1.2.11 Cretaceous 1.2.12 Older Tertiary 1.2.13 Post-Tertiary 1.2.14 Recent
Abundant fossils (grapholites principally) in certain parts of these rocks have shown that representatives of both the Ordovician and Upper divisions are present.
De Lapparent classifies the Cambrian as the lowest stage in the Silurian, the middle and upper stages being Ordovician and Gothlandian.
In a general survey of the life of this period, as it is revealed by the fossils, three outstanding facts are apparent: (I) the great divergence between the Cambrian fauna and that of the present day; (2) the Cambrian life assemblage differs in no marked manner from that of the succeeding Ordovician and Silurian periods; there is a certain family likeness which unites all of them; (3) the extraordinary complexity and diversity not only in the assemblage as a whole but within certain limited groups of organisms. Although in the Cambrian strata we have the oldest known fossiliferous rocks - if we leave out of account the very few and very obscure organic remains hitherto recorded from the pre-Cambrian - yet we appear to enter suddenly into the presence of a world richly peopled with a suite of organisms already far advanced in differentiation; the Cambrian fauna seems to be as far removed from what must have been the first forms of life, as the living forms of this remote period are distant from the creatures of to-day.
On the Norwegian side the Cambrian is perhaps represented by the Roros schists which lie at the base of a great series of crystalline schists, the probable equivalent of Ordovician and Silurian rocks.
The Cambrian formation generally occurs along with the Ordovician, and consists of many divisions.
The upper divisions consist of bituminous limestones, clay-slates, alum-slate, and contain numerous species of trilobites of the genera Paradoxides, Conocoryphe, Agnostus, Sphaerophthalmus, Peltura, &c. The Ordovician formation occurs in two distinct facies - the one shaley and containing graptolites; the other calcareous, with brachiopods, trilobites, &c. The most constant of the calcareous divisions is the Orthoceras limestone, a red or grey limestone with Megalaspis and Orthoceras.
The Cambrian and Ordovician strata occur in isolated patches in Vesterbotten, Jemtland (around Storsjo), Skaraborg, Elfsborg, Orebro, Ostergotland and Kristianstad.
In the Himalaya the geological sequence, from the Ordovician to the Eocene, is almost entirely marine; there are indeed occasional breaks in the series, but during nearly the whole of this long period the Iimalayan region, or at least its northern part, must have been beneath the sea - the Central Mediterranean Sea of Neumayr or Tethys of Suess.
The oldest beds which have hitherto yielded fossils, belong to the Ordovician system, but it is highly probable that the underlying " Haimantas " of the central Himalaya are of Cambrian age.
Of the Lower Palaeozoic rocks the Ordovician appears to be the most widely-spread.
The Ordovician beds have yielded fossils in several places, Vallongo and Bussaco being amongst the best-known localities.
The Palaeozoic beds have yielded fossils of Cambrian, Ordovician, Devonian and Carboniferous age.
In southern Bolivia Cambrian and Ordovician beds form the greater part of the eastern Andes, but farther north the, Devonian and Carboniferous are extensively developed, especially in the northeastern ranges.
The rocks of the Ordovician system, though widely distributed, have not always been separated from the Silurian rocks, which they often closely resemble lithologically.
The occurrence of Ordovician rocks was first established by Dun at Tomingley, 33 m.
The fossiliferous horizon is of Upper Ordovician age.
The extent of the Ordovician will probably be increased by addition of areas, which cannot yet be separated from the Silurian.
Numerous quartz reefs occur both in the Silurian and Ordovician rocks.
The gold-quartz veins are mainly in the Ordovician and Silurian rocks; but some also occur in the Devonian, and there are impregnations of gold in tufas of Devonian age.