Table III., showing orchestral pitches obtained in 1899, for the measurements of which the writer is responsible, prove how chimerical it is to hope for greater accuracy than is found between 435 and 440 vibrations a second for a', inasmuch as temperature must always be reckoned with.
The narrower term "orchestration" is applied to the instrumentation of orchestral music. Since the most obvious differences of timbre are in those of various instruments, the art which blends and contrasts timbre is most easily discussed as the treatment of instruments; but we must use this term with philosophic breadth and allow it to include voices.
Modern composers have often produced their most characteristic orchestral effects with fewer contrasting elements than Bach uses in his Trauer-Ode, in the pastoral symphony in his Christmas Oratorio, in the first chorus of the cantata Liebster Gott, wann werd' ich sterben, and in many other cases; but the modern instrumental effects are as far outside Bach's scope as a long passage of preparation on the dominant leading to the return of a first subject is beyond the scope of a gigue in a suite.
It is in the attempt to supply the place of this continuo (or _ figured bass) by definite orchestral parts that modern per formances, until the most recent times, have shown so radical an incapacity to grasp the nature of 18th-century instrumentation.
For example, it has often been said that the extent to which their orchestral viola parts double the basses is due, partly to bad traditions of Italian opera, and partly to the fact that viola players were, more often than not, simply persons who had failed to play the violin.
But it is equally certain that the pure violoncello tone in large masses belongs to a distinctly different region of orchestral effect.
There is hardly one of Wagner's orchestral innovations which is not inseparably connected with his adaptation of music to the re q uirements of drama; and modern conductors, in treating Wagner's orchestration, as the normal standard by which all previous and contemporary music must be judged, are doing their best to found a tradition which in another fifty years will be exploded as thoroughly as the tradition of symphonic additional accompaniments is now exploded in the performances of Bach and Handel.
The accuracy and the paraphernalia are equally exemplified in all Wagner's additions and alterations of the classical orchestral scheme, for these all consist in completing the families of instruments so that each timbre can be presented pure in complete harmony.
He understood their problem and it helped galvanize him to volunteer to help them.
Richard Strauss, in his edition of Berlioz's works on Instrumentation, paradoxically characterizes the classical orchestral style as that which was derived from chamber-music. Now it, is true that in Haydn's early days orchestras were small and generally private; and that the styles of orchestral and chamber music were not distinct; but surely nothing is clearer than that the whole history of the rise of classical chamber-music lies in its rapid differentiation from the coarse-grained orchestral style with which it began.
Orchestral wind-parts have been discovered belonging to Haydn's string-quartet Op. r, No.
On this differentiation of styles rests the whole aesthetics of chamber-music; but the subject is very subtle, and there is much, as for example in Schubert's quartets and his C major quintet, that is inspired by orchestral ideas without in the least vitiating the chamber-music style; though, judged by its appearance on paper, it seems as unorthodox as the notoriously orchestral beginnings of Mendelssohn's quartet in D and quintet in B.
The beginning of Mendelssohn's F minor quartet is, again, a case usually, but perhaps wrongly, condemned for its orchestral appearance on paper.
Orchestral Schemes Typical of Dif f erent Periods.
But his definite orchestral effects in certain places (e.g.
Larger combinations, being semi-orchestral, especially where the double-bass and wind instruments are used, lend themselves to a somewhat lighter style; thus Beethoven's septet and Schubert's octet are both in the nature of a very large serenade.
P. 34.4 Orchestral score, p. 284.
When we listen to the free declamation of the singers at the outset of Der fliegende Hollander - a declamation which is accompanied by 1 The subsequent division into three acts, as given in all the published editions, has been effected in the crudest way by inserting a full close in the orchestral interludes at the changes of scene, and then beginning the next scene by taking up the interludes again.
The very sense of dramatic fitness has temporarily vanished from public musical opinion, together with the sense of musical form, in consequence of another prevalent habit, that of presenting shapeless extracts from Wagner's operas as orchestral pieces without voices or textbooks or any hint that such adjuncts are desirable.
The Queen's Hall, Langham Place, is used for concerts, including a notable annual series of orchestral promenade concerts.
On his return to Vienna in 1756 he became famous as teacher and composer, in 1759 he was appointed conductor to the private band of Count Morzin, for whom he wrote several orchestral works (including a symphony in D major erroneously called his first), and in 1760 he was promoted to the sub-directorship of Prince Paul Esterhazy's Kapelle, at that time the best in Austria.
To this period belong five Masses, a dozen operas, over thirty clavier-sonatas, over forty quartets, over a hundred orchestral symphonies and overtures, a Stabat Mater, a set of interludes for the service of the Seven Words, an Oratorio Tobias written for the Tonkiinstler-Societe t of Vienna, and a vast number of concertos, divertimenti and smaller pieces, among which were no less than 175 for Prince Nicholas' favourite instrument, the baryton.
There can have been little personal intercourse between them, for Haydn was rarely in the capital, and Mozart seems never to have visited Eisenstadt; but the cordiality of their relations and the mutual influence which they exercised upon one another are of the highest moment in the history of 18th-century music. " It was from Haydn that I first learned to write a quartet," said Mozart; it was from Mozart that Haydn learned the richer style and the fuller mastery of orchestral effect by which his later symphonies are distinguished.
Bach as these were from the orchestral platitudes of Reutter or Hasse..
His symphony Le Midi (written in 1761) already shows a remarkable freedom and independence in the handling of orchestral forces, and further stages of advance were reached in the oratorio of Tobias, in the Paris and Salomon symphonies, and above all in the Creation, which turns to good account some of the debt which he owed to his younger contemporary.
A red-haired Jew, he possessed a magnetic and artistic temperament, and had various special methods of arousing and restraining the revolutionary masses, including orchestral and vocal concerts of high excellence in the formerly royal theatres and the opera house of Munich.
The enormous dramatic development in the symphonic music of Beethoven made the problem of the Mass with orchestral accompaniment almost insoluble.
Bach contrives to give this anti-climax a definite artistic value; all the more from the fact that his Crucifixus and Resurrexit, and the contrast between them, are among the most sublime and directly impressive things in all music. To the end of his Resurrexit chorus he appends an orchestral ritornello, summing up the material of the chorus in the most formal possible way, and thereby utterly destroying all sense of finality as a member of a large group, while at the same time not in the least impairing the force and contrast of the whole - that contrast having ineffaceably asserted itself at the moment when it occurred.
With modern orchestral conditions the text seems positively to demand an unecclesiastical, not to say sensational, style, and probably the only instrumental Requiem Masses which can be said to be great church music are the sublime unfinished work of Mozart (the antecedents of which would be a very interesting subject) and the two beautiful works by Cherubini.
His appeal to musicians was made in a threefold capacity, and we have, therefore, to deal with Liszt the unrivalled pianoforte virtuoso (1830 - r848); Liszt the conductor of the "music of the future " at Weimar, the teacher of Tausig, Billow and a host of lesser pianists, the eloquent writer on music and musicians, the champion of Berlioz and Wagner (1848-1861); and Liszt the prolific composer, who for some five-and-thirty years continued to put forth pianoforte pieces, songs, symphonic orchestral pieces, cantatas, masses, psalms and oratorios (1847-1882).
Liszt transcribed this work, and its influence ultimately led him to the composition of his " Poemes symphoniques " and other examples of orchestral programme-music.
During this period he acted as conductor at court concerts and on special occasions at the theatre, gave lessons to a number of pianists, wrote articles of permanent value on certain works of Berlioz and the early operas of Wagner, and produced those orchestral and choral pieces upon which his reputation as a composer mainly depends.
The compositions belonging to the period of his residence at Weimar comprise two pianoforte concertos, in E flat and in A, the " Todtentanz," the " Concerto pathetique " for two pianos, the solo sonata " An Robert Schumann," sundry " Etudes," fifteen " Rhapsodies Hongroises," twelve orchestral " Poemes symphoniques, " " Eine Faust Symphonie," and " Eine Symphonie zu Dante's ` Divina Commedia,' " the " 13th Psalm " for tenor solo, chorus and orchestra, the choruses to Herder's dramatic scenes " Prometheus," and the " Missa solennis " known as the " Graner Fest' Messe."
In his orchestral pieces Liszt appears - next to Berlioz - as the most conspicuous and most thorough-going representative of programme music, i.e.
In pieces such as Liszt's " Poemes symphoniques," Ce qu'on entend sur la montagne (1848-1856), after a poem by Victor Hugo, and Die Ideale (1853-1857), after a poem by Schiller, the hearer is bewildered by a series of startling orchestral effects which succeed one another apparently without rhyme or reason.
Liszt's masterpiece in orchestral music is the Dante Symphony (1847-1855), the subject of which was particularly well suited to his temperament, and offered good chances for the display of his peculiar powers as a master of instrumental effect.
Besides the works mentioned he has written incidental music to plays, as, for instance, to Ravenswood, The Little Minister, and Coriolanus; concertos and other works for violin and orchestra, much orchestral music, and many songs and violin pieces.
In the orchestral ballad, La Belle Dame sans Merci, he touches the note of weird pathos, and in the nautical overture Britannia his sense of humour stands revealed.
He also wrote a number of songs and orchestral works, of a realistic national type.