Ordinary meteors, in the region of the earth's orbit, appear to be separated by intervals of about 250 m.
Encke, the astronomer who first investigated its orbit and showed its periodicity.
Having two components revolving about their common centre of gravity - and the first to have its orbit calculated.
Orbit open behind; and ridges of lower cheek-teeth generally terminating in small loops.
The explanation of these recurring phenomena is that a great cloud or distended stream of meteors revolves around the sun in a period of 331years, and that one portion of the elliptical orbit intersects that of the earth.
I too would fain be a track-repairer somewhere in the orbit of the earth.
Biela's comet of 1826, which had a period of 6.7 years, presented a significant resemblance of orbit with that of the meteors, but the comet has not been seen since 1852 and has probably been resolved into the meteoric stream of Andromedids.
We must conceive a time when the sun was swollen to such an extent that it filled up the entire space girdled by the orbit of Mercury.
He calculated an orbit for the comet of 1 759 (Halley's), reduced Lacaille's observations of 515 zodiacal stars, and was, in 1763, elected a member of the Academy of Sciences.
Another element is the time of revolution of the body in its orbit, called its period.
It is now known to correspond to the actual orbit of the planet round the sun.
The plane of the joint orbit, in which no deviation from circularity has yet been detected, nearly coincides with the line of sight.
In astronomy the word denotes the angular distance of a body from the pericentre of the orbit in which it is moving.
This, and the inclination of the orbit being given, we have all the geometrical data necessary to compute the coordinates of the planet itself.
In 1867 the remarkable discovery was made that Tempel's comet (1866: I.) revolved in an orbit identical with that of the Leonids.
After the satellite reached the apogee, it continued in orbit, becoming closer to the center of Earth.
As the entire time required for light to pass over the radius of the earth's orbit is only about 500 seconds, this error is fatal to the method.
Phil.): - Let x, y, z be the coordinates of P in the orbit,, r t, those of the corresponding point T in the hodograph, then dx dy _ dz c= ' 71 - a' - at therefore Also, if s be the arc of the hodograph, ds = v = V V1 1) j dt + (dt2) dt Equation (1) shows that the tangent to the hodograph is parallel to the line of resultant acceleration, and (2) that the velocity in the hodograph is equal to the acceleration.
If these suppositions have a basis of reality, the proper motion of Algol should be disturbed by a small, but measurable undulation, corresponding to the projection of its orbit upon the sky; and although certainty on the point cannot be attained for some years to come, Lewis Boss regarded the evidence available in 1895 as tending to confirm Dr Chandler's theory.6 Proceedings Amer.
Tisserand in 1895.1 It involved the action of no third mass, but depended solely upon the progression of the line of apsides in a moderately elliptical orbit due to the spheroidal shape of the globes traversing it.
The variety most highly prized has an extremely short snout, eyes which almost wholly project beyond the orbit, no dorsal fin, and a very long threeor four-lobed caudal fin (Telescope-fish).
From the time of his first introduction to Tycho he had devoted himself to the investigation of the orbit of Mars, which, on account of its relatively large eccentricity, had always been especially recalcitrant to theory, and the results appeared in Astronomia nova ainoXayrgrii, seu Physica coelestis tradita commentariis de motibus stellae Martis (Prague, 1609).
Let AB be the major axis of the orbit, B the pericentre, F the focus or centre of motion, P the position of the body.
In part, again, a commercial war raged between Venice and Genoa, which attracted into its orbit all the various feuds and animosities of the Levant (12J7).
Elliptic orbits, and a parabolic orbit considered as the special case when the eccentricity of the ellipse is 1, are almost the only ones the astronomer has to consider, and our attention will therefore be confined to them in the present article.
If the attraction of a central body is not the only force acting on the moving body, the orbit will deviate from the form of a conic section in a degree depending on the amount of the extraneous force; and the curve described may not be a re-entering curve at all, but one winding around so as to form an indefinite succession of spires.
We begin by considering the laws of motion in the orbit itself, regardless of the position of the latter.
One of these is the position of the line MN through the sun at F in which the plane of the orbit cuts some fundamental plane of reference, commonly the ecliptic. This is called the line of nodes, and its position is specified by the angle which it makes with some fixed line FX in the fundamental plane.
The angle from the pericentre to the actual radius vector, and the length of the latter being found, the angular distance of the planet from the node in the plane of the orbit is found by adding to the true anomaly the distance from the node to the pericentre.
When a new celestial body, say a planet or a comet is discovered, the astronomer meets with the problem of determining the orbit from several observed positions of the body.
To form a conception of this problem it is to be noted that since the position of the body in space can be computed from the six elements of the orbit at any time we may ideally conceive the coordinates of the body to be algebraically expressed as functions of the six elements and of the time.
The problem of determining an orbit may be regarded as coeval with Hipparchus, who, it is supposed, found the moving positions of the apogee and perigee of the moon's orbit.
The skull is elongated, with the orbit not separated from the temporal fossa and the nasals, which may or may not carry horns, reaching at least as far forwards as the union of the premaxillae.
Skull elevated and compressed; with the orbit and temporal fossa widely continuous, there being no true post-orbital process from the frontal bone.
The orbital planes of earth and moon are inclined to each other at an angle of 50.8 ° and at two points only in its orbit can the moon be situated in the plane of the ecliptic: the line joining these two points is called the "line of nodes."
If S is the area of the orbit described in time T by an electron of charge e, the moment of the equivalent magnet is M = eST; and the change in the value of M due to an external field H is shown to be OM = - He'S/47rm, m being the mass of the electron.
If a point be in motion in any orbit and with any velocity, and if, at each instant, a line be drawn from a fixed point parallel and equal to the velocity of the moving point at that instant, the extremities of these lines will lie on a curve called the hodograph.
Every orbit must clearly have a hodograph, and, conversely, every hodograph a corresponding orbit; and, theoretically speaking, it is possible to deduce the one from the other, having given the other circumstances of the motion.
The most plausible explanation of this is that one or more masses of matter move around the sun, whose action, whether they are inside or outside the orbit of Mercury, would produce the required modification in the force.
A comet which appeared in 1861 had a very suggestive agreement of orbit when compared with that of the meteors, and the period computed for it was 415 year's.
Deferens, bearing down), in ancient astronomy, the mean orbit of a planet, which carried the epicycle in which the planet revolved.
The system of Algol, according to this view, is triple; it includes a large, obscure primary, round which the eclipsing pair revolves in an orbit somewhat smaller than that of Uranus, very slightly elliptical, and inclined 20° to the line of sight, the periodic time being 118 years.
A second Tatar raid in 1259, less dangerous, perhaps, but certainly more ruinous, than the first invasion - for the principalities of Little Poland and Sandomir were systematically ravaged for three months - still further but Poland formed but a small portion of his vast domains, and Poland's interests were subordinated to the larger demands of an imperial policy which embraced half Europe within its orbit On the death of Louis there ensued an interregnum of two years marked by fierce civil wars, instigated by duke Ziemovit of Masovia, the northernmost province of Poland, the daughter of Louis the Great and the granddaughter of Wladislaus Lokietek, had an equal right, by inheritance, to the thrones of Hungary and Poland.
With this end in view he expounded to the Berlin academy in 1849 a mode of determining an elliptic orbit from three observations, and communicated to that body in 1851 a new method of calculating planetary perturbations by means of rectangular coordinates (republished in W.
Hence a tacit understanding between Bismarck and Austria that the latter should profit by Italian resentment against France to draw Italy into the orbit of the Austro-German alliance.
If the consolidation took place with comparative uniformity we might then anticipate the formation of a vast multitude of small planets such as those we actually do find in the region between the orbit of Mars and that of Jupiter.
On the throne, in order that Poland, undivided and as strong as circumstances would permit, might be drawn wholly within the orbit of Russia.
In all the cases which have yet arisen in astronomy the extraneous forces are so small compared with the gravitation of the central body that the orbit is approximately an ellipse, and the preliminary computations, as well as all determinations in which a high degree of precision is not necessary, are made on the hypothesis of elliptic orbits.
Let the curve represent an elliptic orbit, AB being the major axis, DE the minor axis, and F the focus in which the centre of attraction is situated, which centre we shall call the sun.
From the properties of the ellipse, A is the pericentre or nearest point of the orbit to the centre of attraction and B the apocentre or most distant point.
To do this the actual speed in the orbit, and in a yet higher degree the angular speed around F, must be greatest at pericentre, and continually diminish till the apocentre is reached.
Since the area of the triangle FPP' is one half the product of FP into the perpendicular p from P on FP', it follows that if these perpendiculars were equal all round the orbit, the areas described during the infinitesimal time would be smallest at the pericentre and continually increase during the passage of the body to B.
Two elements define the position of the plane passing through the attracting centre in which the orbit lies.
The other element is the inclination of the plane of the orbit to the fundamental plane, called the inclination simply.
A sixth is the position of the planet in the orbit at a given moment, for which may be substituted the moment at which it passed the pericentre.
Orbit in higher forms closed by bone; and ridges of lower cheek-teeth terminating in large loops.
The facial portion of the skull is generally shorter than the cranial; the orbit is freely open behind; and the premaxillae tend to be reduced and fused with the nasals.
She contemplated an alliance with Spain, a state quite outside the orbit of Sweden's influence, the firstfruits of which were to have been an invasion of Portugal.
Nasals long in early, but shorter in later forms, hornless; orbit open behind.
The combined mass of the earth and moon admits of being determined by its effect in changing the position of the plane of the orbit of Venus.
This will be evident if we consider that, since radii vectores of the hodograph represent velocities in the orbit, the elementary arc between two consecutive radii vectores of the hodograph represents the velocity which must be compounded with the velocity of the moving point at the beginning of any short interval of time to get the velocity at the end of that interval, that is to say, represents the change of velocity for that interval.