Till recently these apes have been generally included in the same family (Simiidae) with the chimpanzee, gorilla and orang-utan, but they are now regarded by several naturalists as representing a family by themselves - the Hylobatidae.
MALAYS, the name given by Europeans to the people calling themselves Orang Malayu, i.e.
For the purposes of this article, however, only those among these races which bear the name of Orang Malayu, speak the Malayan language, and represent the dominant people of the land, can be included under the title of Malays.
The Malays to-day are Sunni Mahommedans of the school of Shafi`i, and the y habitually use the terms Orang Malayu, i.e.
A Malay, and Orang Islam, i.e.
Another peculiarity of Malay (and likewise of Chinese, Shan, Talaing, Burmese and Siamese) is the use of certain classwords or coefficients with numerals, such as orang (man),when speaking of persons, ekor (tail) of animals, keping (piece) of flat things, biji (seed) of roundish things; e.g.
In his classification it was included in the same genus as the orang-utan; and it has recently been suggested that the name Simia pertains of right to the chimpanzee rather than to the orang-utan.
The natives are governed by rajas (orang kajas), the Dutch government being represented by a posthouder.
The population (about 39,000) is divided into two classes- orang burger or citizens, and orang negri or villagers, the former being a class of native origin enjoying certain privileges conferred on their ancestors by the old Dutch East India Company.
The orang-utang occurs, rarely, in the north-east.
In the hill-country south of the lake are two forest tribes, Orang-ulu and Orang-lubu, pure savages of whom practically nothing is known, affiliated by most authorities to the Battas.
The motor field, therefore, though absolutely larger, forms a smaller fraction of the whole cortex of the brain than in the lower forms. The statement that in the anthropoid (orang-outan) brain the groups of foci in the motor fields of the cortex are themselves separated one from another by surrounding inexcitable cortex, has been made and was one of great interest, but has not been confirmed by subsequent observat'on.
That in man the excitable foci of the motor field are islanded in excitable surface similarly and even more extensively, was a natural inference, but it had its chief basis in the observations on the orang, now known to be erroneous.
In his equally voluminous work, The Origin and Progress of Language (1773), he brought man under the same species as the orang-outang.
ORANG-UTAN (" man of the woods"), the Malay name of the giant red man-like ape of Borneo and Sumatra, known to the Dyaks as the mias, and to most naturalists as Simia satyrus.
The red, or brownish-red, colour of the long and coarse hair at once distinguishes the orang-utan from the African apes; a further point of distinction being the excessive length of the arms, which are of such proportions that the animal when in the upright posture (which it seldom voluntarily assumes) can rest on its bent knuckles.
Jack-fruit or durian, the tough spiny hide of which is torn open with their strong fingers, forms the chief food of orang-utans, which also consume the luscious mangustin and other fruits.
Among the quadrupeds the most remarkable is the orang-utan (Malay, orang Man, i.e.
Numerous species of monkey are found in Borneo, including the wahwah, a kind of gibbon, a creature far more human in appearance and habits than the orang-utan, and several Semnopitheci, such as the long-nosed ape and the golden-black or chrysomelas.
Many quadrupeds, such as the honey-bear and the rhinoceros, are common to all, but while the tiger is common both in the Malayan Peninsula and in Sumatra, it does not occur in Borneo; the elephant, so common in the peninsula, and found in Borneo, is unknown in Sumatra; and the orang-utan, so plentiful in parts of Borneo and parts of Sumatra, has never been discovered in the Malay Peninsula.
In this picture, which shows the crudeness of the zoological notions current in the 18th century as to both men and apes, there are set in a row four figures: (a) a recognizable orang-utan, sitting and holding a staff; (b) a chimpanzee, absurdly humanized as to head, hands, and feet; (c) a hairy woman, with a tail a foot long; (d) another woman, more completely coated with hair.
Another comprised the orang-utans of Sumatra, who were said to take men captive and set them to work as slaves.
As for the story of the orang-utan cabin boy, this may even be verbally true, it being borne in mind that in the Malay languages the term orang-utan, " man of the forest," was originally used for inland forest natives and other rude men, rather than for the miyas apes to which it has come to be generally applied by Europeans.
2, (a) gibbon; (b) orang; (c) chimpanzee; (d) gorilla; (e) man).