Schuster, Theory of Optics, § 178).
His work was mainly concerned with electricity and magnetism, though he also made some contributions to optics and physiology.
Devoting himself next to optics, he produced memoirs which entitle him to a high place among the early, searchers after a true dynamical theory of light.
He also carried out many experiments in magneto-optics, and succeeded in showing, what Faraday had failed to detect, the rotation under the influence of magnetic force of the plane of polarization in certain gases and vapours.
11 Astronomical inquiries in connexion with optics, meteorological phenomena, and, in a word, the whole field of natural laws, excited his desire to explain them.
Attempts have been made, principally founded on some remarks of Huygens, to show that Descartes had learned the principles of refraction from the manuscript of a treatise by Willebrord Snell, but the facts are uncertain; and, so far as Descartes founds his optics on any one, it is probably on the researches of Kepler.
The chief of his other contributions to optics was the explanation of the rainbow - an explanation far from complete, since the unequal refrangibility of the rays of light was yet undiscovered - but a decided advance upon his predecessors, notably on the De radiis visas et lucis (1611) of Marc-Antonio de Dominis, archbishop of Spalato.
The following branches have especially felt his influence: - chemical physics, capillarity and viscosity, theory of gases, flow of liquids, photography, optics, colour vision, wave theory, electric and magnetic problems, electrical measurements, elasticity, sound and hydrodynamics.
At a later period he was one of the leading contributors to the Encyclopaedia Britannica (seventh and eighth editions), the articles on Electricity, Hydrodynamics, Magnetism, Microscope, Optics, Stereoscope, Voltaic Electricity, &c., being from his pen.
In addition to the various works of Brewster already noticed, the following may be mentioned: - Notes and Introduction to Carlyle's translation of Legendre's Elements of Geometry (1824); Treatise on Optics (1831); Letters on Natural Magic, addressed to Sir Walter Scott (1831); The Martyrs of Science, or the Lives of Galileo, Tycho Brake, and Kepler (1841); More Worlds than One (1854).
Many other points of physiological optics are touched on, in general erroneously.
But his researches in physical optics constitute his chief title-deed to immortality.
This resolution of the original wave is the well-known "Principle of Huygens," and by its means he was enabled to prove the fundamental laws of optics, and to assign the correct construction for the direction of the extraordinary ray in uniaxial crystals.
(See also Electro Magnetism, Terrestrial Magnetism, Magneto-Optics and Units.) I.
In optics, it is that portion of the diameter of an object-glass or mirror through which light can pass free from obstruction.
Most of Wollaston's original work' deals more or less directly with chemical subjects, but diverges on all sides into optics, acoustics, mineralogy, astronomy, physiology, botany and even art.
In optics he was the first, in 1802, to observe the dark lines in the solar spectrum.
In Bode's Jahrbuch (1776-1780) he discusses nutation, aberration of light, Saturn's rings and comets; in the Nova acta Helvetica (1787) he has a long paper "Sur le son des corps elastiques," in Bernoulli and Hindenburg's Magazin (1787-1788) he treats of the roots of equation and of parallel lines; and in Hindenburg's Archiv (1798-1799) he writes on optics and perspective.
Thanks to Fresnel and his followers, this department of optics is now precisely the one in which the theory has gained its greatest triumphs.
According to common optics, where images are absolute, the diffraction pattern is supposed to be infinitely small, and two radiant points, however near together, form separated images.
Van Moerbeek, which was long thought to be a fragment of Ptolemy's Optics, because it bore the title Ptolemaei de speculis in the MS. But the attribution to Ptolemy was shown to be wrong as soon as it was made clear (especially by Martin) that another translation by an Admiral Eugenius Siculus (12th century) of an optical work from the Arabic was Ptolemy's Optics.
From the opening passage of Euclid's Optics (c. 300 B.C.), which formed the foundation for some of the earlier middle age treatises on geometrical perspective, it would appear that the above phenomena of the simple darkened room were used by him to demonstrate the rectilinear propagation of light by the passage of sunbeams or the projection of the images of objects through small openings in windows, &c. In the book known as Aristotle's Problems (sect.
Archbishop Peckham, or Pisanus, in his Perspectiva Communis (1279), and Vitello, in his Optics (1270), also attempted the solution of Aristotle's problem, but unsuccessfully.
Various writers on optics in the 17th century discussed the principle of the simple dark chamber alone and with single or compound lenses, among them Jean Tarde (Les Astres de Borbon, 1623); Descartes, the pupil of Kepler (Dioptrique, 1637); Bettinus (Apiaria, 1645); A.
There is a great deal of practical information on lenses in connexion with the camera and other optical instruments, and the book is valuable as a repertory of early practical optics, also for the numerous references to and extracts from previous writers.
's Gravesande's Essai de perspective (1711), Robert Smith's Compleat System of Optics (1738), Joseph Harris's Treatise on Optics (1775), Charles Hutton's Philosophical and Mathematical Dictionary, and other books on optics and physics of that period.
Having entered the Society of Jesus in 1586, he was successively professor of philosophy at Douai and rector of the Jesuit College at Antwerp. He wrote a treatise on optics in six books (Antwerp, 1613), notable for containing the principles of stereographic projection.
We find a precisely analogous effect in optics which justifies the term " electrical image."
He died on the 5th of June 1716, leaving unfinished a series of elaborate retearches on optics, and a large amount of unpublished manuscript.
On his mother's death in 1759 Marat set out on his travels, and spent two years at Bordeaux in the study of medicine, whence he moved to Paris, where he made use of his knowledge of his two favourite sciences, optics and electricity, to subdue an obstinate disease of the eyes.
The results of his leisure were in 1787 a new translation of Newton's Optics, and in 1788 his Memoires academiques, ou nouvelles decouvertes sur la lumiere.
Of recent years most treatises on physical optics, e.g.
(For the optics of sodium vapour see R.
Wood, Physical Optics.) According to A.
Arbes have used a method depending on total reflection (Drude's Theory of Optics, p. 394).
For the theory of dispersion see P. Drude, Theory of Optics (Eng.
Wood, Physical Optics; and A.
For descriptive accounts, see Wood's Physical Optics, T.
A preliminary study of optics led to the publication, in 1604, of his Astronomiae pars optica, containing important discoveries in the theory of vision, and a notable approximation towards the true law of refraction.
In optics, the word has two special applications: (1) Aberration of Light, and (2) Aberration in Optical Systems. These subjects receive treatment below.
Schuster, Theory of Optics, p. 115.
The present writer, therefore, in his Theory of Optics, adopted different names, and called the series respectively the " Trunk," the " Main Branch " and the " Side Branch," the main branch being identical with the second subordinate series; the limit of frequency for high values of s is called the " root " of the series, and it is found in all cases that the two branches have a common root at some point in the trunk.
The question has been fully discussed by C. Runge in the second volume of Kayser's Handbuch (see also Magneto-Optics), and we may therefore content ourselves with the mention of the law discovered by Th.
S Schuster, Theory of Optics, p. 254 ' Wied.
It accordingly comments on the Sphaerica of Theodosius, the Moving Sphere of Autolycus, Theodosius's book on Day and Night, the treatise of Aristarchus On the Size and Distances of the Sun and Moon, and Euclid's Optics and Phaenomena.
Stevinus wrote on other scientific subjects - optics, geography, astronomy, &c. - and a number of his writings were translated into, Latin by W.
Sir Isaac Newton appears to have been the first to use a glass globe instead of sulphur (Optics, 8th Query).
Accordingly, for the next three or four years, he remained steadily at work, and nothing appeared from him in public except a short treatise on optics (Tractatus opticus, L.W.
The theory of electro-optics received great attention from Kelvin, Maxwell, Rayleigh, G.
Prisms, and that familiar experiments in optics could be repeated with electric waves which could not affect the eye.