3 If the beasts can properly be said to see at all, " they see as we do when our mind is distracted and keenly applied elsewhere; the images of outward objects paint themselves on the retina, and possibly even the impressions made in the optic nerves determine our limbs to different movements, but we feel nothing of it all, and move as if we were automata."
The midbrain is represented chiefly by the optic lobes, the cortex of which alone is homologous with the corpora quadragemina of the mammals.
Forwards it covers, and has driven asunder, the optic lobes; backwards it hides the much shortened medulla oblongata.
Another cartilage or ossification, the posterior sclerotic ring, occurs within the walls of the posterior portion of the cup, and surrounds, especially in the Pici and in the Passeres, the entrance of the optic nerve.
From near the entrance of the optic nerve, through the original choroidal fissure, arises the much-folded pecten, deeply pigmented and very vascular, far into the vitreous humour.
One, the quadratus or bursalis muscle, arises from the hinder surface of the eyeball, and forms with its narrow margin, which is directed towards the optic nerve, a pulley for the long tendon of the pyramidalis muscle.
The quadrate muscle adjusts the motion, and prevents pressure upon the optic nerve; during the state of relaxation of both muscles the nictitans withdraws through its own elasticity.
Curiously enough, however, they differ from the cephalic Molluscan eye in the fact that, as in the vertebrate eye, the filaments of the optic nerve penetrate the retina, and are connected with the re surfaces of the nerve-end cells nearer the lens instead of with the opposite end.
Hickson and others, that in the bivalves Pecten and Spondylus, which also have eyes upon the mantle quite distinct from typical cephalic eyes, there is the same relationship as in Oncidiidae of the optic nerve to the retinal cells.
Oe, Gullet; op, optic nerve; sb, sub-oesophageal ganglion; mn, mx, mx', nerves to jaws; t, tentorium.
The angle between the optic axes varies from 70 0 -50° in muscovite and lepidolite to Io - o° in biotite and phlogopite; the latter are thus frequently practically uniaxial.
The plane of the optic axes may be either perpendicular or parallel to the plane of symmetry of the crystal, and according to its position two classes of mica are distinguished.
To the first class, with the optic axial plane perpendicular to the plane of symmetry, belong muscovite, lepidolite, paragonite, and a rare variety of biotite called anomite; the second class includes zinnwaldite, phlogopite, lepidomelane and most biotites.
The lateral eyes are in Limulus " compound eyes," that is to say, consist of many lenses placed close together; beneath each lens is a complex of protoplasmic cells, in which the optic nerve terminates.
They are at the same time both optic nerve-end cells, that is to say, retina cells, and corneagen cells or secretors of the chitinous lens-like cornea.
Nerv.f, Nerve fibres of the optic nerve.
The loss of an eye will be followed by atrophy of the optic nerve; the tissues in a stump of an amputated limb show atrophic changes; a paralysed limb from long disuse shows much wasting; and one finds at great depths of the sea fishes and marine animals, which have almost completely lost the organs of sight, having been cut off for long ages from the stimuli (light) essential for these organs, and so brought into an atrophic condition from disuse.
A point which divides a line, or a line which divides an angle, into two equal parts; in crystallography it denotes the bisector of the angle between the optic axes.
Modern theory accepts the deduction, but ascribes the momentum to the revolving ions in the molecules of matter traversed by the light; for the magneto-optic effect is present only in material media.
He was able to maintain his strenuous habits of study till he reached the advanced age of seventy-two, when he was, forced, by paralysis of the optic nerve, to give up work almost.
When, for instance, the axons of the ganglion cells of the retina are severed by section of the optic nerve, and thus their influence upon the nerve cells of the visual cerebral centres is set aside, the nerve cells of those centres undergo secondary atrophy (Gadden's atrophy).
In the following year he discovered the change, produced by change of temperature, in the direction of the optic axes of selenite.
William Molyneux, in his Dioptrica Nova (1692), p. 256, declares his opinion that Roger Bacon (who died c. 12 9 4) "did perfectly well understand all kinds of optic glasses, and knew likewise the method of combining them so as to compose some such instrument as our telescope."
One of the most puzzling features in its structure, and, at the same time, one of the greatest obstacles to the view that it is essentially primitive and not merely a degenerate creature, is the entire absence of the paired organs of special sense, olfactory, optic and auditory, which are so characteristic of the higher vertebrates.
Von Grafe, first saw the fundus of the living human eye, with its optic disc and blood-vessels, his face flushed with excitement, and he cried, "Helmholtz has unfolded to us a new world!"
The optical characters are interesting, because of the striking crossed dispersion of the optic axes, of which phenomenon borax affords the best example.
The optic figure seen in convergent polarized light through a section cut parallel to the plane of symmetry of a borax crystal is symmetrical only with respect to the central point.
The plane of the optic axes for red light is inclined at 2° to that for blue light, and the angle between the optic axes themselves is 3° greater for red than for blue light.
In the Phyllopoda it consists mainly of two pairs of ganglionic centres, giving origin respectively to the optic and antennular nerves.
5533; the optic sign is therefore positive.
In a small commonplace book, bearing on the seventh page the date of January 1663/1664, there are several articles on angular sections, and the squaring of curves and " crooked lines that may be squared," several calculations about musical notes, geometrical propositions from Francis Vieta and Frans van Schooten, annotations out of Wallis's Arithmetic of Infinities, together with observations on refraction, on the grinding of " spherical optic glasses," on the errors of lenses and the method of rectifying them, and on the extraction of all kinds of roots, particularly those " in affected powers."
The black represents the cuticular product of the epidermal cells of the ocular area, taking the form either of))...,r,, f lens, cl, of crystalline body, cry, or of rhabdom, rhab; hy, hypodermis or epidermal cells; corn', laterallyplaced cells in the simpler stage, A, which like the nerve-end cells, vit' and ret', are corneagens or lens-producing; corn, specialized corneagen or lens-producing cells; vie, potential vitrella cells with cry', potential crystalline body now indistinguishable from retinula cells and rhabdomeres; vit, vitrella cell with cry, its contained cuticular product, the crystalline cone or body; ret', rhab', retinula cells and rhabdom of scorpion undifferentiated from adjacent cells, vit'; ret, retinula cell; rhab, rhabdom; nf, optic nerve-fibres.
Thus light, pressure, or mechanical stimulation acting on the retina and optic nerve invariably produces luminous impressions.