Kohlrausch formulated a theory of electrolytic conduction based on the idea that, under the action of the electric forces, the oppositely charged ions moved in opposite directions through the liquid, carrying their charges with them.
In every magnet the strength of the south pole is exactly equal to that of the north pole, the action of the same magnetic force upon the two poles being equal and oppositely directed.
By similar methods, a circular plate may be made to exhibit nodal lines dividing the surface by diametral lines into four or a greater, but always even, number of sectors, an odd number being incompatible with the general law of stationary waves that the parts of a body adjoining a nodal line on either side must always vibrate oppositely to each other.
But if the same ends A, B be placed over oppositely vibrating segments (such as AOD, COD), the sand will be scarcely, if at all, affected.
43 of the oppositely vibrating prongs of the fork.
But instead of returning to the concrete fact of the equivalence of momentum, by which each body moving makes the other move oppositely, he denied that bodies do reciprocally act on one another, and even that bodies as mutually resisting substances press one another apart in collision.
A combination of two equal, parallel, but oppositely directed forces C
Thus wearing a black and a white silk stocking one over the other, he found they were electrified oppositely when rubbed and drawn off, and that such a rubbed silk stocking when deposited in a Leyden jar gave up its electrification to the jar (Phil.
Two streams are said to be oppositely polarized when the one is, so far as relates to its polarization, what the other becomes when it is turned through an azimuth of 90° and has its character reversed as regards right and left hand.
An analytical investigation of the conditions of interference of polarized streams of the most general type leads to the result that there will be no interference only when the two streams are oppositely polarized, and that when the polarizations are identical the interference will be perfect, the fluctuations of intensity being the greatest that the difference of intensity of the streams admits (Sir G.
281), and it may be shown that two polarized streams of a definite character are analytically equivalent to common light provided that they are of equal intensity and oppositely polarized and that there is no common phase relation between the corresponding monochromatic constituents.
Fresnel showed that rotary polarization could be explained kinematically by supposing that a plane-polarized stream is resolved on entering an active medium into two oppositely circularly polarized streams propagated with different speeds, the rotation being rightor left-handed according as the rightor left-handed stream travels at the greater rate: The polarization-vector of the primitive - stream being = a cos nt, the first circularly polarized stream after traversing a distance z in the medium may be represented by = a cos (nt - k i z), ni = a sin (nt - kiz), and the second b z = a cos (nt - k 2 z), n2= - a sin (nt - k2z).
According to Fresnel's explanation the light in each of the interfering streams consists of two trains of waves that are circularly polarized in opposite direction and have a relative retardation of phase, introduced by the passage through the quartz: the central fringes are then due to the similarly polarized waves; the lateral systems are produced by the oppositely polarized streams, these on analysation being capable of interfering.
Airy extended Fresnel's hypothesis to directions inclined to the axis of uniaxal crystals by assuming that in any such direction the two waves, that can be propagated without alteration of their state of polarization, are oppositely elliptically polarized with their planes of maximum polarization parallel and perpendicular to the principal plane of the wave, these becoming practically plane polarized at a small inclination to the optic axis.
To this is attached a mirror; hence, if a current goes up one side of a loop and down another, the wires are oppositely displaced in the field.
A south pole would be urged oppositely to the conventional " direction " of the line; hence it follows that a very small magnetic needle, if placed in the field, would tend to set itself along or tangentially to the line of force passing through its centre, as may be approximately verified if the compass be placed among the filings on the cardboard.
Roughly speaking, therefore, cobalt behaves oppositely to iron.
Nickel was believed by Thomson to behave oppositely to iron, becoming negative when magnetized; but though his conclusion was accepted for nearly fifty years, it has recently been shown to be an erroneous one, based, no doubt, upon the result of an experiment with an impure specimen.
Hence if dS and dS' are the areas of the ends, and +E and - E' the oppositely directed electric forces at the ends of the tube, the surface integral of normal force on the flux over the tube is EdS - E'dS' (20), and this by the theorem already given is equal to zero, since the tube includes no electricity.