The commerce of Athens extended from Egypt and Colchis to Etruria and Carthage, and her manufactures, which attracted skilled operatives from many lands, found a ready sale all over the Mediterranean.
Of recent years, however, the operatives have moved into the suburbs, leaving the model houses of the "artisans' town" to small tradesmen.
Good operatives have a box full of tricks.
A large public park, opened in 1866, was laid out as a relief work for unemployed operatives during the cotton famine of the earlier part of the decade.
It was also complicated by racial and religious prejudices, a large proportion of the factory operatives being foreigners and Roman Catholics, and most of the country people native Protestants.
Queretaro has one of the oldest and largest cotton factories in Mexico, employing about 2000 operatives, and maintaining a small private military force for protection.
Formerly farmers' daughters of native stock were much employed in factories; but since operatives of foreign birth or parentage have in great part 1 The population of the state was 378,787 in 1790; 422,845 in 1800; 472,040 in 1810; 523,287 in 1820; 610,408 in 1830; 737,699 in 18 4 0; 994,5 1 4 in 1850; 1,231,066 in 1860; 1,457,351 in 1870; 1,783,085 in 1880; 2,238,943 in 1890; and 2,805,346 in 1900.
The cotton factories of 1905 were equipped with 22,021 looms having 678,058 spindles, and with 38 stamping machines, employed 30,162 operatives, and turned out 13,731,638 pieces of cloth.
These inducements have attracted large sums of foreign capital and have brought into the country large numbers of skilled operatives, especially in the cotton, iron and steel, and smelting industries.
But when the town meeting has grown to exceed seven or eight hundred persons, and especially when the farming class of native American stock has been replaced by factory operatives of other nationalities, the institution works far less perfectly.
Many of the mills formerly in operation in Derby, Nottingham, Congleton and Macclesfield have been closed owing to the importation of foreign thrown silks from Italy and France, where a lower rate of wages is paid to the operatives employed in this branch.
In miscellaneous metal trades, embracing tinplate goods, wire workers, makers of stoves, grates, ranges and fire-arms, makers of bolts, nuts, rivets, screws and staples, and those occupied in several subsidiary trades, the number of operatives in 1901 amounted to 13,209.
In 1890 the operatives in the jute and hemp industry numbered 39,885, and in 1901 they were (including workers in canvas, sacking, sailcloth, rope, twine, mats, cocoa fibre) 46,550.
The cotton industry employs thousands of operatives, the iron trade is also very considerable, and many are engaged in the making of machines; but a former woollen manufacture is almost extinct.
In the 18th century the ability of certain natives of the town greatly fostered its cotton industry; thus James Hargreaves here probably invented his spinning jenny about 1764, though the operatives, fearing a reduction of labour, would have none of it, and forced him to quit the town for Nottingham.
BLANKETEERS, the nickname given to some 5000 operatives who on the Toth of March 1817 met in St Peter's Field, near Manchester, to march to London, each carrying blankets or rugs.
The number of hours' labour for operatives and employes in cotton and woollen mills is limited to sixty a week and must not exceed eleven in any one day, except for making up lost time to the extent of sixty hours in any one year.
It is of modern growth, a township of cotton operatives, with large collieries in the vicinity.
The condition of the operatives is becoming every day more like that of the English; and it cannot be wondered at, since, as far as I have heard or observed, the principal object is, not that mankind may be well and honestly clad, but, unquestionably, that corporations may be enriched.
Such too, to a greater or less extent, is the condition of the operatives of every denomination in England, which is the great workhouse of the world.
Between 1811 and 1814 hands of so-called Luddites, starving operatives out of work, scoured the country, smashing machinerythe immediate cause of their misfortunesand committing every sort of outrage.