The " Challenger " discovered an area of radiolarian ooze between 7°-12° N.
The reddish colour comes from the presence of oxides of iron, and particles of manganese also occur in it, especially in the Pacific region, where the colour is more that of chocolate; but when it is mixed with globigerina ooze it is grey.
The greater part of the bottom of the Atlantic is covered by a deposit of Globigerina ooze, roughly the area between l000 and 3000 fathoms, or about 60% of the whole.
This fact, together with the extraordinarily rare occurrence of such remains and meteoric particles in globigerina ooze, although there is no reason to suppose that at any one time they are unequally distributed over the ocean floor, can only be explained on the assumption that the rate of formation of the epilophic deposits through the accumulation of pelagic shells falling from the surface is rapid enough to bury the slowgathering material which remains uncovered on the spaces where the red clay is forming at an almost infinitely slower rate.
Water seeped from the opening, spreading out in a sticky ooze that was quickly eaten by the thirsty ground.
Radiolarian ooze was recognized as a distinct deposit and named by Sir ' John Murray on the " Challenger " expedition, but it may be viewed as red clay with an exceptionally large proportion of siliceous organic remains, especially those of the radiolarians which form part of the pelagic plankton.
The floors of the Caribbean, Cayman and Mexican Basins in the Central American Sea are covered with a white calcareous ooze, which is clearly distinguished from the eupelagic pteropod and globigerina oozes by the presence of abundant large mineral particles and the remains of land plants.
Similar formations are found in the Mediterranean, where a dark mud predominates in the western part, passing into a grey, marly slime in the Tyrrhenian Basin and replaced by a typical calcareous ooze in the Eastern Basin.
There is even some hesitation in accepting the continuity of the chalk with the globigerina ooze of the modern ocean.
If there were strong currents at the bottom of the ocean the uniform accumulation of the deposit of minute shells of globigerina and radiolarian ooze would be impossible, the rises and ridges would necessarily be swept clear of them, and the fact that this is not the case shows that from whatever cause the waters of the depths are set in motion, that motion must be of the most deliberate and gentlest kind.
Over a large part of the central Pacific, far removed from any possible land-influences or deposits of ooze, the red-clay region is characterized by the occurrence of manganese, which gives the clay a chocolate colour, and manganese nodules are found in vast numbers, along with sharks' teeth and the ear-bones and other bones of whales.
Radiolarian ooze is found in the central Pacific in a region between 15° N.
Between these two areas, almost on the equator, a strip of globigerina ooze was found, corresponding to the zone of globigerina in the equatorial region of the Atlantic. Globigerina ooze covers considerable areas in the intermediate depths of the west and south Pacific - west of New Zealand, and along the parallel of 40° S., between 80°-98° W.
Diatom ooze has been found in detached areas between the Philippine and Mariana islands, and near the Aleutian and Galapagos groups, forming an exception to the general rule of its occurrence only in high latitudes.
A few are sapropelic, haunting the looser debris that forms the uppermost layer of the bottom ooze of quiet waters: we may cite the aberrant Floscularian Atrochus.
In those containing water in the rainy season only, the fish preserve life when the bed is dry by burrowing deeply in the ooze before it hardens.
The sweet water Diatomaceae which are found in great variety in the ooze of the deepest parts of the lake also have an arctic character.
It would slowly, but constantly, percolate downwards and towards the sea, and would ooze out at or below the sea-level, rarely regaining the earth's surface earlier except in deep valleys.
In the deeper parts the bed of the ocean is covered on the west and south by Globigerina ooze except for an elongated patch of red clay extending most of the distance from Sokotra to the Maldives.
In the shallower tropical waters, especially on the central ridge, considerable areas are covered by Pteropod ooze, a deposit consisting largely of the shells of pelagic molluscs.
When the proportion of calcium carbonate in the blue mud is considerable there results a calcareous ooze, which when found on the continental slope and in enclosed seas is largely composed of remains of deep-sea corals and bottom-living foraminif era, pelagic organisms including pteropods being less frequently represented.
Thus red clay and radiolarian ooze are distinguished as abyssal deposits in contradistinction to the epilophic calcareous oozes.
These peculiarities, combined with the striking absence of mineral constituents, distinguish the eupelagic globigerina ooze from the hemipelagic calcareous mud.
Out of 118 samples of globigerina ooze obtained by the " Challenger " expedition 84 came from depths of 1500 to 2500 fathoms, 13 from depths of loon to 150o and only 16 from Scot.
These shells do not retain their individuality at depths greater than 1400 or 1500 fathoms, and in fact pteropod ooze is only found in small patches on the ridges near the Azores, Antilles, Canaries, Sokotra, Nicobar, Fiji and the Paumotu islands, and on the central rise of the South Atlantic between Ascension and Tristan d'Acunha.
Kilometres - about two-thirds of that in the Atlantic. Pteropod ooze occurs only in the neighbourhood of Fiji and other islands of the western Pacific, passing up into fine coral sands and mud.
Old trees are selected, from the bark of which it is observed to ooze in the early summer; holes are bored in the trunk, somewhat inclined upward towards the centre of the stem, in which, between the layers of wood, the turpentine is said to collect in small lacunae; wooden gutters placed in these holes convey the viscous fluid into little wooden pails hung on the end of each gutter; the secretion flows slowly all through the summer months, and a tree in proper condition yields from 6 to 8 Ib a year, and will continue to give an annual supply for thirty or forty years, being, however, rendered quite useless for timber by subjection to this process.
In the fossilized ooze of the Wonderkop, a table mountain of the adjacent Wittebergen, are quantities of petrified fish.
In the " Deeps," the Globigerina ooze gradually gives place to red clay.
Globigerina ooze was recognized as an important deposit as soon as the first successful deep-sea soundings had been made in the Atlantic. It was described simultaneously in 1853 by Bailey of West Point and Ehrenberg in Berlih.
Murray and Renard define globigerina ooze as containing at least 30% of calcium carbonate, in which the remains of pelagic (not benthonic) foraminifera predominate and in which remains of pelagic mollusca such as pteropods and heteropods, ostracodes and also coccoliths (minute calcareous algae) may also occur.