The colonial budgets totalled in 1907 some 16,760,000, being divisible into six categories: Algeria 4,120,000; Tunisia 3,640,000; Indo-China3 about 5,000,ooo; West Africa 1,600,000; Madagascar 960,000; all other colonies combined 1,440,000.
Oil-works jo,ooo Other chemical 1 industries 58,000 - -
The average production is about i8o,ooo hectolitres per annum.
The state incurred in this connection a liability of some 1/22o,ooo,000, of which about 1/2I6,00o,000 represented the rolling stock.
The suffrage is extended to all citizens over twenty-one years of age who can read and write and have either attained a certain standard of elementary education or are qualified by paying a rent which varies from 6 in communes of 2500 inhabitants to 16 in communes of 15p,ooo inhabitants, or, if peasant farmers, I6s.
Emilia gives a maximum rate of 10.48 per ioo,ooo, while that of Liguria and Lazio is little lower.
The demands of the Commission were only partly complied with, but a large special grant was voted amounting to at least 1/2I,ooo,000 per annum for the next seven years.
Of the surplus 1,000,000 was allocated to the improvement of posts, telegraphs and telephones; 1,000,000 to public works (~72o,ooo for harbour improvement and 280,000 for internal navigation); 200,000 to the navy (~I32,ooo for a second dry dock at Taranto and 68,000 for coal purchase); and 200,000 as a nucleus of a fund for the purchase of valuable works of art which are in danger of exportation.
Expenditure amounted to 3,768,888, of which the principal items were 760,000 for roads and bridges, 520,000 for lunatic asylums, ~4o,ooo for foundling hospitals, 320,000 for interest on debtand 200,000 for police.
The financial situation continued to be em iously embarrassing; deficit was piled on deficit, loan upon res fn, and the service of the debt rose from 9o,ooo,ooo lire in th 60 to 2?O,000,000 in 1864.
Article 4 allotted the pontiff an annuity of 3,225,000 lire (~I29,ooo) for the maintenance of the Sacred College, the sacred palaces, the congregations, the Vatican chancery and the diplomatic service.
By economies and new taxes Sella had reduced the deficit to less than 2,000,000 in 1871, but for 1872 he found himself confronted with a total expenditure of 8,ooo,ooo in excess of revenue.
On the 2gth of June 1881 the Chamber adopted a Franchise Reform Bill, which increased the electorate from oo,ooo to 2,000,000 by lowering the fiscal qualification from 40 to 19.80 lire in direct taxation, and by extending the suffrage to all persons who had passed through the two lower standards of the elementary schools, and practically to all persons able to read and write.
Baron Sidney Sonnino, minister of finance in the Crispi cabinet, found a prospective deficit of 7,080,000, and in spite of economies was obliged to face an actual deficit of more than 6,ooo,000.
The Italian commander attempted to treat with Menelek, but his negotiations merely enabled the Italian envoy, Major Salsa, to ascertain that the Abyssinians were nearly Ioo,ooo strong mostly armed with rides and well supplied with artillery.
Ooo n } r 3l 1 1 o, ..
Though the inhabitants bad been arned by the earlier convulsions of the mountain, so swiftly d destruction come upon them that 18,ooo are said to have St their lives.
The yearly production of pig iron a ou had risen to between 500,000 and 600,ooo tons.
Colorado, 296,272; Illinois, 240,000; \Vest Virginia, 231,000; Utah, 196,408; Pennsylvania, 112,574; Kentucky, 104,028; OhiO, 86,028; Alabama, 68,903; Indiana, 44,169; Missouri, 40,ooo; New Mexico, 30,805, Tennessee, 25,665; Virginia.
148,300,179 $3,065,632,000 i,78~,x~g,ooo $1,538,046,600
The Association in 1906 had)out 1o5,00o members, besides some io,ooo in Germany and witzerland, and has nearly 2000 churches and i 200 itinerant ad other preachers.
The import dues amounted in the year 1906, the first year of the revised tariff, to about ~3I,639,ooo, or about los.
The most celebrated public libraries are those of Berlin (i,ooo,ooo volumes and 30,000 MSS.); Munich (1,000,000 volumes, 40,000 MSS.); Heidelberg (563,000 volumes, 8ooo MSS.); GÃ¶ttingen (503,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Strassburg (760,000 volumes); Dresden (500,000 volumes, 6000 MSS.); Hamburg (municipal library, 600,000 volumes, 5000 MSS.); Stuttgart (400,000 volumes, 3500 MSS.); Leipzig (universitylibrary, 500,000 volurries, 5000 MSS.); Wurzburg (350,000 volumes); TUbingen (340,000 volumes); Rostock (318,000 volumes); Breslau (university library, 300,000 volumes, 7000 MSS.); Freiburg-im-Breisgau (250,000 volumes); Bonn (265,000 volumes); and Konigsberg (230,000 volumes, I ioo MSS.).
As he had used his large personal property to organize a regiment in order to regain his possessions, the Prussian government had sequestrated that part of his income, amounting to some ~5o,ooo, over which they had control, and used it as secret service money chiefly for controlling the press; to this fund the name Welfen-Fond was commonly given.
15o,ooo, D and there is not among them, as among the Poles, anes.
In accordance with the treaty of Frankfort, the inhabitants were permitted to choose between French and German nationality, but all who chose the former had to leave the country; before the 1st of October 1872, the final day, some 5o,ooo had done so.
As markets for German products the colonies remained of small importance; in 1907 the whole value of the trade, import and export, between Germany and her colonies was less than ~3,3oo,ooo, and the cost of administration, including the grant to the shipping companies, often exceeded the total trade.
Another law authorized a loan of ~I4,ooo,ooo for military equipment.
There are many other towns in the Delta with populations between io,ooo and 20,000.
In the year named the railways came directly under the control of the Egyptian government, which during the next four years spent ~E.3,ooo,ooo on improving and developing the lines.
Over ~I7,ooO,0O0 passes yearly through the post.
Into these basinswhich vary in area from 600 to 5o,ooo acreswater is led by shallow canals when the Nile is in flood.
The value of the imports was E.26,12I,ooo, of the exports fE.28,o13,ooo.
Of thissumover~94,ooo,ooo had been obtained from revenue and nearly 4,000,000 by the sale of the khedives shares in the Suez Canal to Great Britain.
The Conversion Economies Fund was also placed at the free disposal of the Egyptian government- The General Reserve Fund ceased to exist, but for the better security of the bondholders a reserve fund of Li,8oo,ooo was constituted and left in the hands of the Caisse to be used in the highly improbable event of the land tax being insufficient to meet the debt charges.
The chief items of ordinary expenditure are tribute and debt charges, the expenses of the civil administration, of the Egyptian army (between Soo,ooo and 600,000 yearly), of the revenue-earning departments and of pensions.
In 1885 the Guaranteed loan, the nominal capital of which was f9,424,ooo, was issued, and in 1891 the debt reached its maximum figure of 106,802,000.
Military intervention being now imperatively demanded, a vote of credit for ~2,3oo,ooo was passed in the British House of Commons on the 27th of July.
Towards this expense the British government gave a grant-in-aid of ~8oo,ooo, and the balance was borne by the Egyptian treasury.
Isfahan (100,000); Meshed (8o,ooo); Kerman, Resht, Shiraz (6o,ooo); Barfurush, Kazvin, Yezd (5o,ooo); Hamadan, Kermnshah (40,000); Kashan, Khoi, Urmia (35,000); Birjend, Burujird, Bushire, Dizful, Kum, Senendij (Sinna), Zenjan (25,00o to 30,000); Amol, Ardebil, Ardistan, Astarabad, Abekuh, Barn, Bander, Abbasi, Bander Lingah, Damghan, Dilman, Istahbanat, Jahnim, Khunsar, Kumishah, Kuchan, Marand, Maragha, Nishapur, Sari, Sabzevar, Samnan, Shahrud, Shushter (1o,ooo to 20,000).
The value of the silk produced in Persia in the sixties was f,000,ooo per annum, and decreased in consequence of silk-worm disease to 30,000, in 1890.
The average values of the trade with other countries were: France 666,000, Austria 246,000, Germany 124,000, Italy 79,ooo,United States of America 52,000,Netherlands ao,000.
Five launches built in the Royal Indian Marine Docks, Bombay, in 1905, at a cost of 6o,ooo rupees each, of about 8o tons.
While the prices in krans of agricultural produce, and hence the profits of the landowners and the wages and profits of artisans and tradesmen, were in1907-1908more than double what they were in 1876, the maliat, the backbone of the revenue, has hardly increased at all, being 50,000,000 krans (~1,ooo,ooo) against 43,200,000 krans (~1,6oo,ooo) in 1876, and showing a decrease of over 37% in sterling money.
This loan was for 223/4 million roubles (~2,4oo,ooo) at 5% interest, guaranteed by all the Persian customs with the exception of those of Fars and the Persian Gulf ports, and repayable in the course of seventy-five years.
The province of Khorasan, for instance, with some half million inhabitants, paid in 1885 ~I54,0oo in gold, and in addition natural produce to the value of f43,ooo (Curzon, op. cit.
Dividing an army of 6o,ooo men into three corps, he sent one of these into Daghestan, another was to attack Erivan, and with the third he himself laid siege to Shusha in the province of Karabakh.
Whether the result was owing to the defection of i5,ooo Kurds or not the evidence adduced is insufficient to decide.
Said that the London capitalists were, willing to lend 1,250,000 without insisting upon the objectionable control clause; but the proposal came too late, and on the 30th of January 1900, the Russian government had permitted the issue ~ of a loan for 221/8 million roubles (~2,4oo,ooo) at 5%, 1900.
The sum voted by the British government to slave-owners in Cape Colony, out of a total compensation paid of £20,oOo,000, was 1,250,000 (the official estimate of their value being £3,000,000).
Draught at a cost estimated at £20,Ooo,000 saving some 340 miles in the distance from Lake Superior or Lake Michigan to the sea.
As the southern frontier town of Egypt proper, Assuan in times of peace was the entrepot of a considerable trade with the Sudan and Abyssinia, and in 1880 its trade was valued at 4.2,Ooo,000 annually.
At the beginning of 1902, when the South African war was closing, the normal peace expenditure, even reckoned at 160,000,000, did not exceed one-tenth, while even peace and war expenditure together in 1901, taking them as close on 200,Ooo,000, did not exceed one-eighth.
Instead of making a desperate attempt to drive them off, the king bribed them to depart with io,ooo pounds of silver, accepting it is said this cowardly advice from archbishop Sigeric. The fatal precedent soon bore fruit: the invaders came back in larger numbers, headed by Olaf Tryggveson, the celebrated adventurer who afterwards made himself king of Norway, and who was already a pretender to its throne.
15o,ooo horses and mules are maintained on a peace footing and oo,ooo on a war footing.
The gradual abolition of the grist tax on minor cereals diminished the surplus in 1882 to 236,000, and in 1883 to r1o,ooo, while the total repeal of the grist tax on wheat, which took effect on the 1st of January 1884, coincided with the opening of a new and disastrous period of deficit.
A w-suit awarded the property to the branch making its headsarters at Indianapolis, whereon the other party, numbering, ooo, that met at Philadelphia, constituted themselves the nited Evangelical Church.
400,000 One-year volunteers recalled to the colors or serving as reserve and Landwehr officers ioo,ooo 2,400,000
Nevertheless ~lthelred for a second time stooped to pay tribute, and bought the departure of Dane and Norwegian with 16,ooo pounds of silver.