On the other hand, in discussing the ontological argument, Lotze commits himself to a moral a priori (below, ad fin.).
The middle ages, in the person of Anselm of Canterbury, contribute the first clear form of the Ontological argument for theism.
In other words; whenever philosophy g teaches a doctrine of the Absolute, and regards such doctrine as valid and certain, we have the essence of an ontological or a priori argument.
The existence of God is maintained by Albert and Aquinas to be domonstrable by reason; but here again they reject the ontological argument of Anselm, and restrict themselves to the a posteriori proof, rising after the manner of Aristotle from that which is prior for us to that which is prior by nature or in itself.
The ontological basis of ethics is the unity of the real and the ideal, and the psychological and actual basis of the ethical process is the tendency of reason and nature to unite in the form of the complete organization of the latter by the former.
He will not have the Ontological argument; but he asserts Natural Law, and relies upon the cosmological and design arguments - with various refinements and distinctions, differently stated in his two Summae.
Really, he urged, there could be only one substance - Descartes himself had dropped a passing hint to that effect - and the bold deductive reasoning of Spinoza's Ethics, in process if not in result, betrays its kinship to the ontological argument, with its affirmation of what must be.
It is no more than characteristic of Kant's whole speculative philosophy that he should' think the Ontological argument the one which comes nearest to st,-cess (yet the Ontological argument is held to prove - or rather to point out - not that God must exist, but that we think of him as necessary if we think of him as existing at all).
Finally the Ontological argument sums up the truth in the two previous arguments, and gives it worthier utterance in its vision of the philosophical Absolute.
The Ontological argument, though not wholly rejected as a proof, is taken rather as pointing to God's attribute of infinity; thought rather than experience making affirmation that the intuition in question must be attached to God.
The Ontological argument is omitted; but we have already observed that there is a discussion of divine ' Paul Janet's Final Causes seems to follow Mill in this (" the fact of Finality "), but without naming him.
Infinity in relation to time and space which from one point of view is parallel to the Ontological argument.
He regards the Ontological argument strictly so called as having been exploded by Kant.
Aristotle's distinction of form and matter, and his conception of becoming as a transition from actuality to potentiality, provides a new ontological way of conceiving the process of material and organic evolution.'
He therefore rejected as worthless the ontological proof offered by Aquinas.
On the other hand, as the first to formulate the ontological argument (in his Proslogion) for the existence of God, he joins hands with some of the profoundest names in modern philosophy.
As the prevalence of the conceptions signified and inspired by the word "phlogiston" kept alive ontological notions of disease, so the dissipation of vitalistic conceptions in the field of physics prepared men's minds in pathology for the new views opened by the discoveries of Pasteur on the side of pathogeny, and of J.
Of the older ontological notions of disease the strongest were those of the essence of fever and of the essence of inflammation.
Meanwhile Cohnheim and Metchnikoff were engaged in destroying the ontological conception not of fever only, but also of inflammation, of which, as a local event, an ontological conception was no less strongly implanted.
The metaphysical or ontological part of psychology is in Wundt's view the actual part, and with this the science of nature and the science of mind are to be brought into relation, and thus constituted as far as possible philosophical sciences.
He supposes in metaphysics the same transcendence in forming cosmological, psychological, and ontological " ideals."
Atoms. But he limits psychological and ontological " ideals " entirely to imaginary transcendence, The result is that he confines metaphysical transcendence to " a process into the imaginary " as regards the substantial and causal content of cosmological " ideals," and altogether as regards psychological and ontological " ideals."
Thus, according to him, in the first place reason forms a cosmological " ideal " of a multitude of simple units related; secondly, it forms a psychological " ideal " of a multitude of wills, or substance-generating activities, which communicate with one another by ideas so that will causes ideas in will, while together they constitute a collective will, and it goes on to form the moral ideal of humanity (das sittliche Menschheitsideal); and, thirdly, it forms an ontological " ideal " of God as ground of this moral " ideal," and therewith of all being as means to this end, and an " ideal " of God as world-will, of which the world is development, and in which individual wills participate each in its sphere.
As the same limit is applied by him to all transcendent rational " ideals," and especially to those which refer to the content of the notion of the world, and, like all psychological and ontological "ideals," belong to the imaginary transcendent, his conclusion is that reason, in transcending experience, logically conceives " ideals," but never logically infers corresponding realities.
But when we look for the evidence of any such will beyond ourselves and our experience, we find Wundt offering nothing but an ontological " ideal " of reason, and a moral " ideal " requiring a religious " ideal," but without any power of inferring a corresponding reality.
We start, according to him, from a psychological triplicity in consciousness, consisting of sensation, personal will and impersonal reason, which by a priori laws of causality and substance carries us to the ontological triplicity of oneself as ego willing, the non-ego as cause of sensation, and God as the absolute cause beneath these relative causes.
So far this ontological triplicity is realism.
Janet accepted the traditional ontological triplicity - God, souls and bodies - and, in answer to Ravaisson, who called this realism " demi-spiritualisme," rejoined that he was content to accept the title.
Of ideas not due to external causes nor to volition but only to our capacity to think, our disposition to develop them, and finally the ontological proof, that affect the thought of the next age most deeply.
This bore interest in the Kantian age in the treatment alike of cause and effect, and of the ontological proof of existence from essence.
Hence he attains salvation, being delivered from sin and fear and death, for the divine attributes are not ontological entities to be discussed and defined in the schools, but they are realities, entering into the practical daily life.
Such a demonstration he presented in the Proslogion; it is his celebrated ontological proof.
The same criticism is made by several of the later schoolmen, among others by Aquinas, and is in substance what Kant advances against all ontological proof.
He holds, 2 In Kantism, as we have partly seen, the most important ontological beliefs - in God, freedom and immortality of the soul - are based on necessities of ethical thought.
The pre-Socratic thinkers were all primarily devoted to ontological research; but by the middle of the 5th century B.C. the conflict of their dogmatic systems had led some of the keenest minds to doubt the possibility of penetrating the secret of the physical universe.
Identity and difference among ideas, as when we say that " blue is not yellow "; or (b) with mathematical relations, as that " two triangles upon equal bases between two parallels must be equal "; or (c) in assertions that one quality does or does not coexist with another in the same substance, as that " iron is susceptible of magnetical impressions, or that ice is not hot "; or (d) with ontological reality, independent of our perceptions, as that " God exists " or " I exist " or " the universe exists."
The ontological conclusion, moreover, is not to be regarded as something added by an external process; it is an immediate implication.
Thus while Plato hoped to ascend through classificatory science to the knowledge of eternal and immutable laws of thought and being, Speusippus, abandoning ontological speculation, was content to regard classificatory science not as a means but as an end, and (6) to rest in the results of scientific observation.
Hence Plato, finding in the school no capable representative of his ontological theory, might well choose to succeed him a favourite pupil whose scientific enthusiasm and attainment were beyond question; and Speusippus's rivals, having themselves abandoned the theory of ideas, would not be in a position to tax him with his philosophical apostasy.
In theology the fundamental problems of ontological philosophy were faced; the relationship of unity to multiplicity, of noumenon to phenomena, of God to man.
What is the ontological relationship between these three factors?
He accepts the ontological argument with a.