She is rarely mentioned in Homer, nor is she included amongst the Olympian gods.
As a god of athletes heis often a wrestler (iraXaiµco)), and founds the Olympian games.
The greatest monument, however, of the Hellenistic period is the colossal Olympieum or temple of Olympian Zeus, " unum in terris inchoatum pro magnitudine dei " (Livy The 01 m- xli.
Marcellus, after an unsuccessful attempt to negotiate, began the siege in regular form (214 B.C.) by both land and sea, establishing a camp on Polichne, where stood the old temple of Olympian Zeus; but he made his chief assault on the northern side and on the defences of Tyche, particularly at the Hexapylum, the entrance facing Megara and Leontini.
So also it was needful that, like a Greek city, it should have a public hearth or prytaneum, where fire should always burn on the altar of the Olympian Hestia, and where the controllers of Olympia should exercise public hospitality.
He was commonly compared to Olympian Zeus, partly because of his serene and dignified bearing, partly by reason of the majestic roll of the thundering eloquence, with its bold poetical imagery, with which he held friend and foe spellbound.
His head was of somewhat archaic type: the Otricoli mask which used to be regarded as a copy of the head of the Olympian statue is certainly more than a century later in style.
See Pindar, 7th Olympian Ode; Diodorus v.
The Cretans themselves claimed for their island to be the birthplace of Zeus, as well as the parent of all the other divinities usually worshipped in Greece as the Olympian deities.
Athens, however, was the favourite site of his architectural labours; here he built the temple of Olympian Zeus, the Panhellenion, the Pantheon, the library, a gymnasium and a temple of Hera.
Of the worship of the Tyrian Baal, who is also called Melkart (king of the city), and is often identified with the Greek Heracles, but sometimes with the Olympian Zeus, we have many accounts in ancient writers, from Herodotus downwards.
The greatest of their foundations, the temple of Olympian Zeus, will be Academy referred to later.
Gelo's brother and successor, Hiero(478-467), kept up the power of the city; he won himself a name by his encouragement of poets, especially Aeschylus and Simonides, and philosophers; and his Pythian and Olympian victories made him the special subject of the songs of Pindar and Bacchylides; among the recently discovered works of the latter are three Odes (iii.
Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his "Olympian" games at Dium.
305), they made war upon the Olympian gods and endeavoured to pile Pelion upon Ossa in order to storm heaven itself; had they reached the age of manhood, their attempt would have been successful, but Apollo destroyed them before their beards began to grow.
The Aloidae (here connected with 6.Xon), threshing-floor) represent the spirits of the fertile earth and agriculture, conceived of by the Greeks as engaged in combat with the Olympian gods.
It is impossible to adopt the view that the Homeric poets turned the rude shepherd-god of Arcadia into a messenger, in order to provide him with a place in the Olympian circle.
It is more probable that the Olympian Hermes represents the fusion of several distinct deities.
The elemental character of Hephaestus is far more apparent than is the case with the majority of the Olympian gods; the word Hephaestus was used as a synonym for fire not only in poetry (Homer, Il.
In Homer the fire-god was the son of Zeus and Hera, and found a place in the Olympian system as the divine smith.
The Olympian forge had been transferred to Etna or some other volcano, and Hephaestus had become a subterranean rather than a celestial power.
The fire, as an element, belongs to the Olympian Hephaestus; the Titan Prometheus, a more human character, steals it for the use of man.
Homer mentions him as assisting Zeus when the other Olympian deities were plotting against the king of gods and men (Iliad i.
Gildersleeve edited in 1885 The Olympian and Pythian Odes of Pindar, with a brilliant and valuable introduction.
Sixteen women, representing eight towns of Elis and eight of Pisatis, wove the festal robe for the Olympian Hera.
Spartan arms could enforce the sanction which the Olympian Zeus gave to the oaths of the amphictyones, whose federal bond was symbolized by common worship at his shrine.
Spartan arms could punish any violation of that " sacred truce " which was indispensable if Hellenes from all cities were to have peaceable access to the Olympian festival.
326), the Olympian festival ceased to be held after A.D.
The list of Olympian victors, which begins in 776 B.C. with Coroebus of Elis, closes with the name of an Armenian, Varastad, who is said to have belonged to the race of the Arsacidae.
The chryselephantine statue of the Olympian Zeus, by Pheidias, was carried to Constantinople, and perished in a great fire, A.D.
The Olympian temple of Zeus is said to have been dismantled, either by the Goths or by Christian zeal, in the reign of Theodosius II.
The result of these six years' labours was, first, to strip off a thick covering of earth from the Altis, the consecrated precinct of the Olympian Zeus.
Or 192.27 metres - an important result, as it determines the Olympian foot to be 0.3204 metre or a little more than an English foot (I.
In the Heraeum at Olympia, it may be remarked, the unit adopted was not this Olympian foot, but an older one of 0.297 metre, and in the temple of Zeus an Attic foot of 1.08 English foot was used.
Its form was that of a vaulted tunnel, 100 Olympian feet in length.
The west section contained the throne and image of the Olympian Zeus.
- Under this head are placed buildings erected, either by states or by individuals, as offerings to the Olympian god.
Each of these treasure-houses was erected by a Greek state, either as a thank-offering for Olympian victories gained by its citizens, or as a general' mark of homage to the Olympian Zeus.
As a thank-offering for the overthrow of Greek freedom, it might seem strangely placed in the Olympian Altis.
It was apparently a square building, of which each side measured 100 Olympian feet, with a south-west aspect.
(The excavations made in 1887 have shown that Vitruvius was right in describing the great temple of Olympian Zeus at Athens as being octastyle.
HERA, in Greek mythology, the sister and wife of Zeus and queen of the Olympian gods; she was identified by the Romans with Juno.
It is probable that the face, neck, arms and feet were of ivory, while the rest of the figure was draped in gold, Like the Olympian Zeus of Pheidias, Hera was seated on an elaborately decorated throne, holding in her left hand the sceptre, surmounted in her case by the cuckoo (as that of Zeus had an eagle), and in her right, instead of an elaborate figure of Victory (such as the Athena Parthenos and the Olympian Zeus held), simply a pomegranate.
With a kind of trumpet formed out of a shell he terrified the Titans in their fight with the Olympian gods.
She is not mentioned in Homer, although the hearth is recognized as a place of refuge for suppliants; this seems to show that her worship was not universally acknowledged at the time of the Homeric poems. In post-Homeric religion she is one of the twelve Olympian deities, but, as the abiding goddess of the household, she never leaves Olympus.
In the gloomy rites of of the Diasia, the Olympian Zeus, as Zeus Meilichios god of wealth, has been imposed upon a chthonic snake-deity who is propitiated by holocausts of pigs and by a ritual of purgation (Harrison, Prol.
The turbulent Olympian court has almost disappeared.
His grandfather Empedocles was victorious in the Olympian chariot race in 496; in 4 70 his father Meto was largely instrumental in the overthrow of the tyrant Thrasydaeus.
8.2) Neleus restored the Olympian games and died at Corinth, where he was burled on the isthmus.
Simultaneously, at the Olympian festival of 324, the command was issued to all the cities of Greece to recognize him as god and to receive the exiles home.1 In 323 B.C. the preparations for the circumnavigation and subjection of Arabia were complete: the next enterprise being the conquest of the West, and the battle for Hellenic culture against Carthage and the Italian tribes.
With this end in view he established colonies at Potidaea and Apollonia in Macedonia, at Anactorium and Leucas in north-western Greece, and he is said to have projected a canal through the Isthmus, In Greece proper he conquered Epidaurus, and with the help of his fleet of triremes brought the important trading centre of Corcyra under his control, while his interest in the Olympian festival is perhaps attested by a dedication which may be ascribed to him - the famous "chest of Cypselus."
'Air6X X uw,'AirEX X wv), in Greek mythology, one of the most important and many-sided of the Olympian divinities.
P. 1267, note 2), as in the case of most of the Olympian deities, are unsatisfactory, and throw no light upon her significance and characteristics.
From Pisa Pelops extended his sway over the neighbouring Olympia, where he celebrated the Olympian games with a splendour unknown before.
The story of Pelops is told in the first Olympian ode of Pindar and in prose by Nicolaus Damascenus.
Or, again, there is nothing not explicable and natural in the conception of the Olympian Zeus as represented by the great chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia, or in the Homeric conception of Zeus as a god who " turns everywhere his shining eyes " and beholds all things.
While the Greek mythology described the Titans as "enchained once for all in their dark dungeons" yet Prometheus' threat remained to disturb the tranquillity of the Olympian Zeus.
In contrast with these, it is considered one of the glories of the Olympian mythology of Greece that it believed in happy manlike beings (though exempt from death, and using special rarefied foods, &c.), and celebrated them in statues of the most exquisite art.
Pheidon assisted the Pisatans to expel the Elean superintendents of the Olympian games and presided at the festival himself.
Euhemerus of Messenia tried of old to rationalize the Greek myths by supposing that the Olympian gods were deified men.
Elis and Sparta, making common cause, had no difficulty in excluding the Pisatans from their proper share in the management of the Olympian sanctuary.