He took part in the excavations at Olympia in 1878, became an assistant in the Berlin Museum in 1880, and professor at Berlin (1884) and later at Munich.
Among his numerous publications the most important were a volume on the bronzes found at Olympia, vast works on ancient gems and Greek vases, and the invaluable Masterpieces of Greek Sculpture (English translation by Eugenie Strong).
But among the Greeks themselves the two works of Pheidias which far outshone all others, and were the basis of his fame, were the colossal figures in gold and ivory of Zeus at Olympia and of Athena Parthenos at Athens, both of which belong to about the middle of the 5th century.
The Tholos at Epidaurus, built by Polycleitus (c. 400 B.C.), and the Tholos at Olympia, known as the Philippeion, are the most remarkable examples, and in both cases were covered with a sloping roof and not with a dome.
The probable origin of the story is the part traditionally taken in the foundation of Syracuse by the Iamidae of Olympia, who identified the spring Arethusa with their own river Alpheus, and the nymph with Artemis Alpheiaia, who was worshipped at Ortygia.
During the excavations on the Acropolis at Athens, terminated in 1888, many potsherds of the Mycenaean style were found; but Olympia had yielded either none, or such as had not been recognized before being thrown away, and the temple site at Delphi produced nothing distinctively Aegean.
161 by Herodes Minor; bronzes from Olympia, Delphi and elsewhere, and numerous painted vases, among them the unequalled white lekythi from Athens and Eretria.
The goal, which is well preserved at the upper end, is similar to that at Olympia; it consists of a sill of stone sunk level with the ground, with parallel grooves for the feet of the runners at starting, and sockets to hold the posts that separated the spaces assigned to the various competitors, and served as guides to them in running.
Hephaestus (or Prometheus) subsequently split open his head with a hatchet, and Athena sprang forth fully armed, uttering a loud shout of victory (Hesiod, Theogony, 886; Pindar, Olympia, vii.
Olympia, Greece >>
Among other popular places of entertainment may be mentioned the exhibition grounds and buildings at Earl's Court; similar grounds at Shepherd's Bush, where a Franco-British Exhibition was held in 1908, an Imperial Exhibition in 1909, and an Anglo-Japanese in 1910; the great Olympia hall, West Kensington; the celebrated wax-work exhibition of Madame Tussaud in Marylebone Roan, the Alexandra Palace, Muswell Hill, an institution resembling the Crystal Palace; and the Agricultural Hall, Islington, where agricultural and other exhibitions are held.
In 1874 he was sent to Athens by the German government, and concluded an agreement by which the excavations at Olympia were entrusted exclusively to Germany.
The most important are: Die Akropolis von Athen (1844); Naxos (1846); Peloponnesos, eine historisch-geographische Beschreibung der Halbinsel (1851); Olympia (1852); Die lonier vor der ionischen Wanderung (1855); Attische Studien (1862-1865); Ephesos (1874); Die Ausgrabungen zu Olympia (1877, &c.); Olympia and Umgegend (edited by Curtius and F.
The monuments are as follows: (r) the pyramids of Egypt, (2) the gardens of Semiramis at Babylon, (3) the statue of Zeus at Olympia (see PHE1DIAS), (4) the temple of Artemis at Ephesus, (5) the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (see Mausoleum), (6) the Colossus at Rhodes, (7) the Pharos (lighthouse) of Alexandria, or the Walls of Babylon.
He and the crown princess took a great interest in art and industry, especially in the royal museums; and the excavations conducted at Olympia and Pergamon with such great results were chiefly due to him.
Most non-Dorian Greeks, in fact, seem to have accepted much as Dorian which was in fact only Spartan: this was particularly the case in the political, ethical and aesthetic controversies of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. Much, however, which was common (in art, for example) to Olympia, Argolis and Aegina, and might thus have been regarded as Dorian, was conspicuously absent from the culture of Sparta.
The chief example of her early art was the celebrated "chest of Cypselus" at Olympia, of carved cedar and ivory inlaid with gold.
The Olympic games, so famous in Greek history, were celebrated once every four years, between the new and full moon first following the summer solstice, on the small plain named Olympia in Elis, which was bounded on one side by the river Alpheus, on another by the small tributary stream the Cladeus, and on the other two sides by mountains.
In the Attic deme Melita he was invoked as 6W /caws (" Helper in ills "), at Olympia as KaXAlvcrcos (" Nobly-victorious "), in the rustic worship of the Oetaeans as eopvoiricov (K6pv01rEs, " locusts "), by the Erythraeans of Ionia as tlrotcrdvos (" Canker-worm-slayer ").
134; Pindar, Olympia, vi., Nemea, ix.; Apollodorus iii.
Seattle and Tacoma are among the four leading ports of the United States on the Pacific. Other harbours on Puget Sound of commercial importance are Olympia, Everett and Bellingham.
Olympia was chosen as the temporary seat of government, and Governor Stevens at once set to work to extinguish the Indian titles to land and to survey a route for a railway, which was later to become the Northern Pacific. The Indians, alarmed by the rapid growth of the white population, attempted to destroy the scattered settlements and the wandering prospectors for gold, which had been discovered in eastern Washington in 1855.
A further interest in Greek archaeology has been awakened in all civilized lands by the excavations of Troy, Mycenae, Tiryns, Epidaurus, Sparta, Olympia, Dodona, Delphi, Delos and of important sites in Crete.
Tacoma is the starting-point of steamship lines to Alaska, to San Francisco, and to Seattle, Port Townsend, Olympia, Victoria, and other ports on Puget Sound.
OLYMPIA, the scene of the famous Olympic games, is on the right or north bank of the Alpheus (mod.
The area known as Olympia is bounded on the west by the Cladeus, on the south by the Alpheus, on the north by the low heights which shut in the Alpheus valley, and on the east by the ancient racecourses.
The natural situation of Olympia is, in one sense, of great beauty.
But even now the praise seems hardly excessive to a visitor who, looking eastward up the fertile and well-wooded valley of Olympia, sees the snow-crowned chains of Erymanthus and Cyllene rising in the distance.
Aristotle saw in the temple of Hera at Olympia a bronze disk, recording the traditional laws of the festival, on which the name of Lycurgus stood next to that of Iphitus, king of Elis.
Olympia entered on a new phase of brilliant and secure existence as a recognized Panhellenic institution.
This phase may be considered as beginning after the establishment of Elean supremacy in 572 B.C. And so to the last Olympia always remained a central expression of the Greek ideas that the body of man has a glory as well as his intellect and spirit, that body and mind should alike be disciplined, and that it is by the harmonious discipline of both that men best honour Zeus.
The significance of Olympia was larger and higher than the political fortunes of the Greeks who met there, and it survived the overthrow of Greek independence.
In the Macedonian and Roman ages the temples and contests of Olympia still interpreted the ideal at which free Greece had aimed.
In the 5th century the desolation of Olympia had set in.
This bouleuterium would have been available on all occasions when Olympia became the scene of conference or debate between the representatives of different states - whether the subject was properly political, as concerning the amphictyonic treaties, or related more directly to the administration of the sanctuary and festival.
In the Heraeum at Olympia, it may be remarked, the unit adopted was not this Olympian foot, but an older one of 0.297 metre, and in the temple of Zeus an Attic foot of 1.08 English foot was used.
Olympia, besides its religious character, originally possessed also a political character, as the centre of an amphictyony.
So also it was needful that, like a Greek city, it should have a public hearth or prytaneum, where fire should always burn on the altar of the Olympian Hestia, and where the controllers of Olympia should exercise public hospitality.
Olympia, Washington >>
He published, besides several theological works, A Translation from the Italian of the Life of Donna Olympia Maladichini, who governed the Church during the time of Pope Innocent X., which was from the year 1644 to 1655 (1667), and A Translation from the French of the Jesuits' Intrigues (1669).
Many kinds of contest, such as the chariot race of the apobatai (said to have been introduced by Erechtheus), which were not in use at Olympia, were practised in Athens.
OLYMPIA, the capital of the state of Washington, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Thurston county, on the Des Chutes river and Budd's Inlet, at the head of Puget Sound, about 50 m.
Of Olympia, are the Tumwater Falls of the Des Chutes, which provide good water power.
Olympia was laid out in 1851, became the capital of Washington in 1853, and was chartered as a city in 18J9.
We have, on the other hand, Pausanias's evidence for the existence in his day at Olympia of statues offered by Acragas out of spoil won from Motya, assigned to Calamis, an artist of this period (Freeman ii.
In Macedonia the native chiefs had been attracted by the rich Hellenic life at any rate from the beginning of the 5th century, when Alexander I., surnamed " Phil-hellen," persuaded the judges at Olympia that the Temenid house was of good Argive descent (Hdt.
She received honour, however, in other parts of the Peloponnese, particularly in Olympia, where her temple was the oldest, and in Arcadia.
Prehistoric buildings of the semielliptical plan, which previously appeared beneath classical remains at Olympia and at Orchomenos in Boeotia, have now been discovered under the Mycenaean palace of Tiryns, under an Hellenic temple at Thermon in Aetolia and in Levkas.
The stratification is said to be like that of the settlements at Olympia, but undisturbed.
"SIX TUS V.") Vita de Donna Olimpia Maidalchina (1666) is gossipy and untrustworthy; Capranica's Donna Olympia Pamfili (Milan, 1875, 3rd ed.) is fanciful and historically of no value.