1475) on an uti possidetis basis, a peace subsequently confirmed by the congress of Olmiitz (July 1479).
The cloth industry was introduced in the 14th century at Iglau, where it soon obtained a great reputation; it developed afterwards at Olmiitz, and since the middle of the 18th century it has its principal centre at Briinn.
Fully 95% of the inhabitants are Roman Catholics, under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the archbishop of Olmiitz and the bishop, of Briinn; 2.7% Protestants and 2% Jews.
The local diet is composed of zoo members, of which the archbishop of Olmiitz and the bishop of Briinn are members ex officio.
For administrative purposes Moravia is divided into 34 districts and 6 towns, with autonomous muncipalities: Briinn (pop., 108,944), the capital, Iglau (24,387), Olmiitz (21,933), Znaim (16,261), Kremsier (13991) and Ungarisch-Hradisch (5137).
Had a wider horizon than his predecessor; and his similar recognition of two of the most distinguished "inopportunist" members of the Vatican council, Haynald, archbishop of Kalocsa, and Prince Ftirstenberg, archbishop of Olmiitz, was even more noteworthy.
In 1850 Prussia, realizing from the breakdown of her mobilization for the war then impending with Austria that success was impossible, submitted to the Austrian demands, but her statesmen saw from the first that the "surrender of Olmiitz," as it was termed, rendered eventual war with Austria "a military necessity."
Of the lines of concentration open to the Austrians, the direction of the roads and railways favoured that of Olmiitz so markedly that Moltke felt reasonably certain that it would be chosen, and the receipt of the complete ordre de bataille of the Austrian army of the north secured by the Prussian secret service on the 11th of June set all doubts at rest.
According to this, the Austrian troops already in Bohemia, 1st corps, Count Clam-Gallas, 30,000 strong, were to receive the Saxons if the latter were forced to evacuate their own country, and to act as an advanced guard or containing wing to the main body under Feldzeugmeister von Benedek (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 8th, 10th corps) which was to concentrate at Olmiitz, whence the Prussian staff on insufficient evidence concluded the Austrians intended to attack Silesia, with Breslau as their objective.
To overcome it he at length obtained authority (June 15th) to order the army of the Elbe into Saxony, and on the 18th the Prussians entered Dresden, the Saxons retiring along the Elbe into Bohemia; and on the same day the news that the Austrian main body was marching from Olmiitz towards Prague arrived at headquarters.
Meanwhile Benedek had in fact assigned only one corps with the reserve cavalry to oppose a Prussian advance towards Vienna, and the remaining seven retired to Olmiitz, where they were on the flank of a Prussian advance on Vienna, and had all the resources of Hungary behind them to enable them to recuperate.
On the other wing is the mass of hills from which the spurs and streams descend: here the Olmiitz-Briinn road passes.
(The 'course of events which led to the action is described under Napoleonic Campaigns.) Napoleon, falling back before the advance of the allied Austrians and Russians from Olmiitz, bivouacked west of the Goldbach, whilst the allies, holding, near Austerlitz, the junction of the roads from Olmiitz and from Hungary, formed up in the valleys east of the Pratzen heights.
Farther still on the right the 5th column (cavalry under Prince John of Liechtenstein) was to hold the northern part of the plateau, south of the Briinn-Olmiitz road; across the road itself was the corps of Prince Bagration, and in rear of Liechtenstein's corps was the reserve (Russians under the grand-duke Constantine).
No further attempt was made on the plateau, which was held by the French from Pratzen to the Olmiitz road.
Until 1886 Olmiitz was one of the strongest fortresses of Austria, but the fortifications have been removed, and their place is occupied by a town park, gardens and promenades.
Olmiitz is an important railway junction, and is the emporium of a busy mining and industrial district.
Olmiitz is said to occupy the site of a Roman fort founded in the imperial period, the original name of which, Mons Julii, has been gradually corrupted to the present form.
At a later period Olmiitz was long the capital of the Slavonic kingdom of Moravia, but it ceded that position to Briinn in 1640.
In 1848 Olmiitz was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication, and in 1850 an important conference took place here between Austrian and German statesmen.
The bishopric of Olmiitz was founded in 1073, and raised to the rank of an archbishopric in 1777.
Muller, Geschichte der kiiniglichen Hauptstadt Olmiitz (2nd ed., Olmiitz, 1895).
In 1805 Czartoryski accompanied Alexander both to Berlin and Olmiitz as chief minister.
Exhausted and diminished by the stout and successful opposition of the Moravians at Olmiitz, the Tatars vanished as suddenly as they had appeared, leaving a smoking wilderness behind them.
During the last war of Poland as an independent country Kollataj betook himself to the camp of Kosciuszko, but when he saw that there was no longer hope he went to Galicia, but was captured by the Austrians and imprisoned at Olmiitz till 1803.
On the 2nd of December he abdicated at Olmiitz in favour of his nephew, Francis Joseph.
On the 7th of October the emperor Ferdinand had fled from Schonbrunn to Olmiitz, a Slav district, whence he issued a proclamation inviting whoever loved "Austria and freedom" to rally round the throne.
Here it will suffice to say that the terms of the Convention of Olmiitz (November 29, 1850) seemed at the time a complete triumph for Austria over Prussia.
He studied at Prague and at Olmiitz, and, after travelling extensively in search of historical material, became professor of history at the university of Prague and archivist for Bohemia in 1862.
It was intended for the installation of Beethoven's friend, the archduke Rudolph, as archbishop of Olmiitz; and, though not ready until two years after that occasion, it shows the most careful consideration of the meaning of a church service, no doubt of altogether exceptional length and pomp, but by no means impossible for its unique occasion.
At a meeting of the Catholic nobles of Bohemia and Moravia at Olmiitz in Moravia, Matthias was proclaimed king of Bohemia (May 3, 1469).