The most important are: Bezerros (17,484), Bom Jardim (40,160), Brejo da Madre de Deus (13,655), a town of the higher agreste region, Cabo (13,337), Caruaru (17,844), Escada (9331), Garanhuns (32,788, covering six towns and villages), Gloria de Goyta (24,554), Goyanna, Limoeiro (21,576), Olinda (8080), the old colonial capital and episcopal see, Rio Formosa (6080), Timbauba (9514) and Victoria (32,422).
The first permanent settlement was made by Duarte Coelho Pereira at Olinda in 1530, and four years later he was granted a capitania of 50 leagues extending from the mouth of the Sao Francisco northward to that of the Iguarassu.
From Olinda (Ponta de Pedra, 8° o' 57" S., 34° so' W.) due west to the Peruvian frontier (about 73° 50' W.).
In 1630 the Dutch attempted again to effect a settlement; and Olinda, with its port, the Recife-Olinda, was destroyed, but the Recife was fortified and held, reinforcements They had extended their limits southwards till they reached the Spanish settlements of La Plata.
With the exception of the hills on which Olinda is built about 5 m.
There are also suburban lines to Olinda and Caxanga, the latter providing communication with some of the prettiest suburbs about the city.
The site of Coelho's capital was Olinda, but Recife remained its port and did not become an independent villa (town) until 1710.
At the age of eighteen' he was teaching rhetoric, and a little later dogmatic theology, at the college of Olinda, besides writing the "annual letters" of the province.
At the end of the Dutch War the capital was removed from Olinda to Recife, where it has since remained.