The sympathies of Dinarchus were in favour of an Athenian oligarchy under Macedonian control; but it should be remembered that he was not an Athenian citizen.
This governing oligarchy was known as " the patricians."
The comune included the entire citybishop, consuls, oligarchy, councils, handicraftsmen, proletariate.
It was almost inevitable in the transition from feudalism to democracy that this intermediate ground should be traversed; and the peculiar Italian phrases, primo popolo, secondo popolo, terzo pa polo, and so forth, indicate successive changes, whereby the oligarchy passed from one stage to another in its progress toward absorption in democracy or tyranny.
And Venice was ruled by a close oligarchy; Florence was passing from the hands of her oligarchs into the power of the Medicean merchants.
The necessities of war and foreign affairs soon placed Florence in the power of an oligarchy headed by the great Albizzi family.
The hereditary oligarchy of Venice was established by a series of changes which took place between the years 1297 and 1319.
But the particular way in which oligarchy was finally established at Venice had some singular results.
A nobility of this kind often gave way to a democracy which either proved as turbulent as itself, or else grew into an oligarchy ruling under democratic forms. Thus at Florence the old nobles became the opposite to a privileged class.
The Florentine democracy was, in truth, rather to be called an oligarchy, if we accept the best definition of democracy (see Thucydides vi.
39), namely, that it is the rule of the whole, while oligarchy is the rule of a part only.
Anne accepted the condition and became empress, but when she discovered that the attempt to limit her powers in favour of a small conservative oligarchy was extremely unpopular among all classes, she submitted the question to an assembly of Boo ecclesiastical and lay dignitaries, and at their request the unlimited autocratic rule was re-established.
Taking advantage of an outbreak at Genoa, he overthrew that ancient oligarchy, replaced it by a form of government modelled on that of France (June 6th); and subsequently it adopted the name of the Ligurian Republic.
The monarchical government introduced by Deiphontes gave way to an oligarchy, and the oligarchy degenerated into a despotism.
But meanwhile the exclusiveness of the single class of citizens from whose ranks the chief magistrates were drawn had converted the government into a close oligarchy and excited the hatred of every other class.
It is easy to denounce the dominant Magyar classes as a selfish oligarchy, and to criticize the methods by which they have sought to maintain their power.
It has its council of notables, forming a sort of oligarchy which, through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates, directs the interior affairs of the community - policing, recruiting, the assignment and collection of taxes, &c. - and has judicial power in less important suits and crimes.
In these circumstances the administration of public affairs fell into the hands of an oligarchy, who governed the country to suit their own convenience.
In the interval of twenty years between the death of Timoleon and the rise of Agathocles to power another revolution at Syracuse transferred the government to an oligarchy of 600 leading citizens.
Who desired an oligarchy, the Palleschi or Mediceans who generally supported them, the Adirati who opposed Capponi for his moderation, the Arrabbiati who were strongly anti-Medicean, and the Popolani who opposed the Ottimati.
Moreover, borough government in England seems to have been mainly democratic until the r4th or 15th century; there was no oligarchy to be depressed or suppressed.
While many continental municipalities were becoming more democratic in the 14th century, those of England were drifting towards oligarchy, towards government by a close "select body."
In 390 B.C. Thrasybulus, with the assistance of Heracleides and Archebius, expelled the Lacedaemonian oligarchy, and restored democracy and the Athenian influence.
The magistracy had been acquiring more and more the character of an oligarchy; all power was practically in the hands of a few closely-related families; and the gravest peculation and malversation took place without hindrance.
Senators to restore an oligarchy nor themselves aspired as pretenders to the throne.
His ideal was a return to a 6th century constitution, which his contemporaries could equally regard as a moderate oligarchy or a restricted democracy.
Gradually the dispute pervaded all classes of society, and the religious questions became entangled with political issues; the partisans of the house of Orange espoused the cause of the stricter Calvinism, whereas the bourgeois oligarchy of republican tendencies, led by Oldenbarnevelt and Hugo Grotius, stood for Arminianism.
Marat had seen that England was at this time being ruled by an oligarchy using the forms of liberty, which, while pretending to represent the country, was really being gradually mastered by the royal power.
Marius, however, unlike Caesar, did not attempt to overturn the oligarchy by means of the army; he used rather such expedients as the constitution seemed to allow, though they had to be backed up by riot and violence.
Oligarchy, aiming at the good of the few: iii.
They forced upon the king the Provisions of Oxford (1258), which placed the govern ment in the hands of a feudal oligarchy; they reduced expenditure, expelled the alien favourites from the kingdom, and insisted upon a final renunciation of the French claims. The king submitted for the moment, but at the first opportunity endeavoured to cancel his concessions.
The English church also formed a quasi-official clerical oligarchy, and the land reserved by the Constitutional Act for the support of "a protestant clergy" formed a fruitful source of bitterness.
It has been argued that the war was ultimately a struggle between the principles of oligarchy and democracy.
This view, however, cannot be taken of the early stages of the war when there was democracy and oligarchy on both sides (see ad fin.); it is only in the later stages that the political difference is prominent.
This oligarchy was overthrown again in June, and the new democracy having vainly sought an agreement with Sparta rejoined Athens.
A common theory is that Sparta fought throughout the war as an advocate of oligarchy, while Athens did not seek to interfere with the constitutional preferences of her allies.
He succeeded (c. 15-10 B.C.) in setting up a timocratic oligarchy in the imperial interest (see Tarsus).
In 410 B.C. the Athenian general Theramenes found an oligarchy at Paros; he deposed it and restored the democracy (Diod.
The discontented condition of Upper Canada drew him into politics., and on the 18th of May 1824 he published at Queenston the first number of the Colonial Advocate, in which the ruling oligarchy was attacked with great asperity.
A more important result of Athenian intervention was the substitution of the democratic government for the oligarchy which had succeeded the early monarchy; at any rate forty years later we find that Argos possessed complete democratic institutions.
Meanwhile the rule of the town was extending over more and more territory, so that finally it governed 52 bailiwicks (acquired between 1324 and 1729), the Bernese patricians being thus extremely powerful and forming an oligarchy that administered affairs like a benevolent and well-ordered despotism.
Her commercial policy was one of most irrational and intolerable restriction and repression; and till the end of Spanish rule on the American continent, the whole political power was retained by the court at Madrid, and administered in the colonies by an oligarchy of home-bred Spaniards.
The oligarchy composed of the great landowners have always been an important factor in the political life of the republic; when President Balmaceda found that he was not a persona grata to this circle he determined to endeavour to govern without their support, and to bring into the administration a set of men who had no traditions and with whom his personality would be all-powerful.
Up to 1870 the government was in the hands of a small oligarchy of Santiago families, but the president enjoyed large powers of initiative.
The electoral body is therefore small, and is under the control of a political oligarchy which practically rules the country, no matter which party is in power.
Nevertheless, we cannot regard Catiline as an honest enemy of the oligarchy, or as a disinterested champion of the provincials.
They swayed backwards and forwards between the power of the people and the power of the few; but democracy and oligarchy passed sooner or later into the hands of a master who veiled his lordship under various titles, and generally at last into the hands of a family.
It is an oligarchy of patriarchs.
Cracy, and after 1628 as an oligarchy, to maintain "its independence alongside of Venice and Genoa, and painted the word Libertas on its banner till the French Revolution."
He published The Oligarchy of Venice (1904).