Columbus is near the Ohio coal and iron-fields, and has an extensive trade in coal, but its largest industrial interests are in manufactures, among which the more important are foundry and machine-shop products (1905 value, $6,259,579); boots and shoes (1905 value, $5,425,087, being more than one-sixtieth of the total product value of the boot and shoe industry in the United States, and being an increase from $359,000 in 1890); patent medicines and compounds (1905 value, $3,214,096); carriages and wagons (1905 value, $2,197,960); malt liquors (1905 value, $2,133,955); iron and steel; regalia and society emblems; steam-railway cars, construction and repairing; and oleo-margarine.
Tsori), the oleo-resin of Balsamodendron opobalsamum and B.
T.) Anime, an oleo-resin (said to be so called because in its natural state it is infested with insects) which is exuded from the locust tree, Hymenaea coumaril, and other species of Hymenaea growing in tropical South America.
Resins when soft are known as oleo-resins, and when containing benzoic or cinnamic acid they are called balsams. Other resinous products are in their natural condition mixed with gum or mucilaginous substances and known as gum-resins.
The hard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarach, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odoriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, turpentine, copaiba) and gum-resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense.
7-epE31,vOos or -rEpµcvOos), the oleo-resins which exude from certain trees, especially from some conifers such as Pinus sylvestris - and from the terebinth tree, Pistacia terebinthus, It was to the product of the latter, now known as Chian turpentine, that the term was first applied.
Crude or common turpentine is the commercial name which embraces the oleo-resin yielded by several coniferous trees, both European and American.
Oil of Turpentine, or Turps, as a commercial product is obtained from all or any of these oleo-resins, but on a large scale only from crude or common turpentine.
ROSIN (a later variant of "resin," q.v.) or Colophony (Colophonia resina, resin from Colophon in Lydia), the resinous constituent of the oleo-resin exuded by various species of pine, known in commerce as crude turpentine.
The separation of the oleo-resin into the essential oil-spirit of turpentine and common rosin is effected by distillation in large copper stills.
In this group may be included the oleo-resins, such as copaiba, cubebs and Canada balsam; the gum-resins, such as asafetida, myrrh, ammoniacum and galbanum; and the true balsams, such as benzoin, storax, balsam of Tolu and balsam of Peru.
The oils are usually contained in special cells, glands, cavities, or canals within the plants either as such or intermixed with resinous substances; in the latter case the mixtures form oleo-resins, balsams or resins according as the product is viscid, or solid and hard.