Of the natural fats or glycerides contained in oils the most important in addition to palmitin are stearin and olein, and these it may be sufficient to regard as the principal fatty bodies concerned in soapmaking.
Almost without exception potash soaps, even if made from the solid fatty acids, are " soft," and soda soaps, although made with fluid olein, are " hard "; but there are considerable variations according to the prevailing fatty acid in the compound.
In the manufacture of stearin for candles, &c., the fatty matter is decomposed, and the liquid olein, separated from the solid fatty acids, is employed as an ingredient in soapmaking.
These enabled him to elucidate the true nature of soap; he was also able to discover the composition of stearin and olein, and to isolate stearic and oleic acids, the names of which were invented by him.
Recently, however, glycerides have been found in which the glycerin is combined with two and even three different acid radicals; examples of such glycerides are distearo-olein, C 3 H 5 (0.
C18H330), and stearo-palmito-olein, C3H 5 (0 C1811350) (O.
Very good results have been obtained from a preparation named "lipanin," which consists of six parts of oleic acid and ninety-four of pure olein.