On the north the hills rise gradually from the shore, which is fringed with oleander bushes and indented with small bays.
In some places, occupying the sides and hollows of ravines, are found the rose bay (Nerium Oleander), called in Persian khar-zarah, or ass-bane, the wild laburnum and various Indigoferae.
The oleander grows here to be a tree, and there is a banyan tree, said to be the only one growing out of doors in the United States.
The sugar-cane flourishes, the cotton-plant ripens to perfection, date-trees are seen in the gardens, the rocks are clothed with the prickly-pear or Indian fig, the enclosures of the fields are formed by aloes and sometimes pomegranates, the liquorice-root grows wild, and the mastic, the myrtle and many varieties of oleander and cistus form the underwood of the natural forests of arbutus and evergreen oak.
The Mediterranean basin has been a centre of preservation of Mibcene vegetation: the oleander is said to have been found in local deposits of even earlier age, and the hoim oak (Quercus hex) is the living representative of a Miocene ancestor.
- This group-name has been given to a large number of substances which have an action similar to that of the foxglove leaves, including the active principles of strophanthus, squill, Urechites suberecta, Convallaria majalis, Nerium Oleander, Helleborus niger, Antiaris toxicaria (the upas tree), and several others.