De l'Astrolabe: Oiseaux, p. 239, pl.
Alix, Essai sur l'appareil locomoteur des oiseaux (Paris, 1874); E.
Blanchard, " Recherches sur les caracteres osteologiques des oiseaux appliques a la classification," Ann.
Schultergurtel (Leipzig, 1864-1865); P. Harting, L'A ppareil episternal des oiseaux (Utrecht, 1864); T.
Alix, Essai sur l'appareil locomoteur des oiseaux (Paris, 1874); H.
Milne-Edwards, Recherches anatomiques et paliontologiques pour servir a l'histoire des oiseaux fossiles de la France (Paris, 1867-1868), torn.
Breschet, Recherches anatomiques et physiologiques sur l'organe de l'audition chez les oiseaux (Paris, 1836), with Atlas; C. Hasse, various papers in Zeitschr.
Lauth, " Memoire sur les vaisseaux lymphatiques des oiseaux," Ann.
C. Sappey, Recherches sur l'appareil respiratoire des oiseaux (Paris, 1847); W.
Milne-Edwards, whose magnificent Oiseaux fossiles de la France was published from 1867 to 1871.
Milne-Edwards, Recherches anatomiques et paleontologiques pour servir d l'histoire des oiseaux fossiles de la France (Paris, 1867-1868); F.
Latham entered, so far as the limits of his work would allow, into the 1 They were drawn and engraved by Martinet, who himself began in 1787 a Histoire des oiseaux with small coloured plates which have some merit, but the text is worthless.
The travels of Le Vaillant in South Africa having been completed in 5785, his great Oiseaux d'Afrique began to appear in Paris in 1797; but it is hard to speak properly of this work, for several of the species described in it are certainly not, and never were in his time, inhabitants of that country, though he sometimes gives a long account of the circumstances under which he observed them.1° From travellers who employ themselves in collecting the animals of any distant country the zoologists who stay at home and study those of their own district, be it great or small, are really not so much divided as at first might appear.
Between 1803 and 1806 Le Vaillant also published in just the same style two volumes with the title of Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de Paradis et des rolliers, suivie de celle des toucans et des barbus, an assemblage of forms, which, miscellaneous as it is,.was surpassed in incongruity by a fourth work on the same scale, the Histoire naturelle des promerops et des guepiers, des couroucous et des touracos, for herein are found jays, waxwings, the cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola), and what not besides.
His Oiseaux d'Afrique, already mentioned.
A similar series of works was projected and begun about the same time as that of Le Vaillant by Audebert and Vieillot, though the former, who was by profession a painter and illustrated the work, was already dead more than a year before the appearance of the two volumes, bearing date 2802, and entitled Oiseaux dores ou a reflets metalliques, the effect of the plates in which he sought to heighten by the lavish use of gilding.
The first volume contains the " Colibris, Oiseaux-mouches, Jacamars et Promerops," the second the " Grimpereaux " and " Oiseaux de Paradis " - associations which set all the laws of systematic method at defiance.
His colleague, Vieillot, brought out in 1805 a Histoire naturelle des plus beaux chanteurs de la Zone Torride with figures by Langlois of tropical finches, grosbeaks, buntings and other hard-billed birds; and in 1807 two volumes of a Histoire' naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amenique septentrionale, without, however, paying much attention to the limits commonly assigned by geographers to' that part of the world.
The Galerie des oiseaux, a rival work, with plates by Oudart,' seems to have been begun immediately after the former.
The views of neither of these systematizers pleased Temminck, who in 1817 replied rather sharply to Vieillot in some Observations sur la classification methodique des oiseaux, a pamphlet published at Amsterdam, and prefixed to the second edition m i nd.
To Dr Cabanis we are indebted for the ornithological results of Richard Schomburgh's researches given in the third volume (pp. 662-765) of the latter's Reisen im Britisch-Guiana (8vo, 1848), and then in Leotaud's Oiseaux de file de la Trinidad (8vo, 1866).
Oiseaux in Vieillot's Faune francaise (8vo, 1822-1829); France but there is a great number of local publications of which Mr Saunders has furnished (Zoologist, 18 7 8, pp. 95-99) a catalogue.
For Belgium the Faune belge of Baron De Selys-Longchamps (8vo, 1842), old as it is, remains the classical work, though the Planches colorises des oiseaux de la Belgique of M.
Some of them were already manifest when one of its author's colleagues, Schlegel (who had been employed to write the text for Susemihl's plates, originally intended to illustrate Temminck's work), brought out his bilingual Revue critique des oiseaux d'Europe (8vo, 1844), a very remarkable volume, since it correlated and consolidated the labours of French and German, to say nothing of Russian, ornithologists.
3-93) the " Recherches sur l'appareil sternal des Oiseaux," which the precept and example of his master had prompted him to undertake, and Cuvier had found for him the means of executing.
There is no evidence, so far as we can see, of his having been aware of Merrem's views; but like that anatomist he without hesitation divided the class into, two great " coupes," to which he gave, however, no other names than " Oiseaux normaux " and" Oiseaux anomaux "-exactly corresponding with his predecessor's Carinatae and Ratitae-and, moreover, he had a great advantage in founding these groups, since he had discovered, apparently from his own investigations, that the mode of ossification in each was distinct; for hitherto the statement of there being five centres of ossification in every bird's sternum seems to have been accepted as a general truth, without contradiction, whereas in the ostrich and the rhea, at any rate, L'Herminier found that there were but two such primitive points, 3 and from analogy 1 Their value was, however, understood by Gloger, who in 1834, as will presently be seen, expressed his regret at not being able to use them.
He judged that the same would be the case with the cassowary and the emeu, which, with the two forms mentioned above, made up the whole of the " Oiseaux anomaux" whose existence was then generally acknowledged.
4 These are the forms which composed the family previously termed Cursores by De Blainville; but L'Herminier was able to distinguish no fewer than thirty-four families of " Oiseaux normaux," and the judgment with which their separation and definition were effected must be deemed on the whole to be most creditable to him.
" Oiseaux normaux "].
" Oiseaux anomaux "].
Blanchard published some Recherches sur les caracteres osteo- logiques des oiseaux appliquees a la classification naturelle de ces animaux, strongly urging the superiority of such characters over those drawn from the bill or feet, which, he remarks, though they may have sometimes given correct notions, have mostly led to mistakes, and, if observations of habits and food have sometimes afforded happy results, they have often been deceptive; so that, should more be wanted than to draw up a mere inventory of creation or trace the distinctive outline of each species, zoology without anatomy would remain a barren study.
These terms were explained in his great work L' Organisation du regne animal, oiseaux, begun in 1855, to mean exactly the same as those applied by Merrem to his two primary divisions.
Here we must mention the intimate connexion between classification and geographical distribution as revealed by the palaeontological researches of Alphonse Milne-Edwards, whose magnificent Oiseaux Fossiles de la France a.
His works include: Mes Loisirs (1863); La Voix d'un exile (1867), a satire against the Canadian government; boreales, and Les Oiseaux de neige (1880), crowned by the French academy; La Legende d'un peuple (1887); two historical dramas, Papineau (1880) and Felix Poutre (1880); La Noel au Canada (1900), and several prose works and translations.
His principal works were, Conspectus systematis ornithologiae, mastozologiae, erpetologiae et amphibologiae, Ichthyologiae (Leiden, 1850), Tableau des oiseaux-mouches (Paris, 1854), Ornithologie fossile (Paris, 1858).
8, II and 15; (8) Danilewsky, "Recherches sur la parasitologie comparee du sang des oiseaux (Kharkoff, 1888-1889); (9) D.
(1904), 56, p. 123, fig.; (54) idem, " Hemamibes des oiseaux et moustiques ` Generations alternantes,' de Schaudinn," op. cit.
P. Lesson, who had previously (loc. cit.) made some blunders about it, placed it (Traite d'Ornithologie, p. 12), though only, as he says, "par analogie et a priori," in his first division of birds, "Oiseaux Anomaux," which is equivalent to what we now call Ratitae, making of it a separate family "Nullipennes."
Milne-Edwards on that island (Oiseaux, pp. 223250), while the whole family Coraciidae is the subject of a monograph by H.
Sclater, The Fauna of South Africa (4 vols., 1900 1901); Le Valliant, Histoire naturelle des oiseaux d'Afrique (6 vols., Paris, 1805-1808); F.