Offences are punished by the aggrieved party.
In regard to moral offences, jurisdiction under this act is exclusive.
In the English criminal law, where corporal punishment is ordered by the court for certain criminal offences, the "cat" is used only where the prisoner is over sixteen years of age.
He puts ritual offences, however, in the same category with offences against the moral law, and he does not distinguish between immorality and practices that are survivals of old recognized customs: in ch.
On the one hand, he regards him as supreme in power, controlling the destinies of Babylonia and Egypt as well as those of Israel, and as inflexibly just in dealing with ordinary offences against morality.
The cour dassises occupies itself entirely with offences of the most serious type, classified under the penal code as crimes, in accordance with the severity of the penalties attached.
Besides its legislative functions, the senate is the highest court of justice in the case of political offences or the impeachment of ministers.
The pretori have penal jurisdiction concerning all misdemeanours (contravvenzioni) or offences (delitti) punishable by imprisonment not exceeding three months or by fine not exceeding 1000 lire (~4o).
The penal tribunals have jurisdiction in cases involving imprisonment up to ten years, or a fine exceeding 40, while the assize courts, with a jury, deal with offences involving imprisonment for life or over ten years, and have exclusive jurisdiction (except that the senate is on occasion a high court of justice) over all political offences.
Statistics of offences, including contravvenzioni or breaches of by-laws and regulations, exhibit a considerable increase per 100,000 inhabitants since 1887, and only a slight diminution on the figures of 1897.
Libels, insults, &c., resistance to public authority, offences against good customs, thefts and frauds, have increased; assaults are nearly stationary.
And his minister Cardinal Consalvi oppression had not been very severe, and Metternichs proposal to establish a central inquisitorial tribunal for political offences throughout Italy had been rejected by the papal government.
Episcopis, &c., subjected clerics for small offences pertaining to the observances of religion to bishops and synods.
Against all "tonsured" persons, supra); (d) Offences in regard to holy places - " brawling " and such like; (e) Heresy, schism, apostasy, witchcraft.
439) Other traces occur in the Acts of Uniformity, which make offences of depraving the Book of Common Prayer triable at Assizes (between 23 Eliz.
In regard to clerical offences, 3 & 4 Vict.
C. 32) creates yet a new court of first instance for the trial of clerical offences against morality in the shape of a consistory court, which is not the old court of that name, but is to comprehend the chancellor and five assessors (three clergymen and two laymen chosen from a prescribed list), with equal power with the chancellor on questions of fact.
(7) Laymen can no longer be tried in the spiritual courts for offences against clerks.
(2) Discipline of the laity in respect of sexual offences as already stated.
It has cognizance of scandalous offences by laymen and punishes them by deprivation of religious privileges.
The subject matter of ecclesiastical jurisdiction in Russia during the whole patriarchal period included matrimonial and testamentary causes, inheritance and sacrilege, and many questions concerning the Church domains and Church property, as well as spiritual offences of clergy and laity (ib.).
He survived the reign of Henry VIII., that perilous age for the Howards, with no worse misadventure than the conviction of himself and his wife of misprision of treason in concealing the offences of his niece, Queen Catherine.
Actually, however, its activity, directed mainly to the discovery of political offences, degenerated into a hideous reign of terror.
Sir Francis Weston in a letter to his family almost acknowledges his guilt in praying for pardon, especially for offences against his wife;' Anne's own conduct and character almost prepare us for some catastrophe.
He convokes, prorogues and dissolves the chamber, sanctions laws, exercises the right of pardon in case of political offences, represents the island in its foreign relations and is chief of its military forces.
There are two assize courts at Canea and Candia respectively with jurisdiction in regard to serious offences (KaKOvpy17aaia).
Minor offences (1rX17gµeVillaTa) and civil causes are tried by courts of first instance in each of the five departments.
In this connexion we may note that the disturbances, mainly royalist but sometimes Jacobinical, in several districts of France enabled Bonaparte to propose the establishment in the troubled districts of special tribunals for the trial of all offences tending to disturb the general peace.
(6th of February 1801), it enabled the government to supersede the ordinary judicial machinery for political offences in no fewer than thirty-two departments.
He seems to have been guilty of various offences and to have got off with short terms of imprisonment by bribery; but the monstrous cruelty which popular tradition has attributed to him is purely legendary.
In 1269 James the Conqueror of Aragon, at the bidding of the pope, turned from the long Spanish Crusade to a Crusade in the East in order to atone for his offences against the law matrimonial.
Along with these crimes against religion went treason to the emperor, offences against the laws, especially counterfeiting, defraudation in taxes, seizure of confiscated property, evil conduct of imperial officers, &c. There is no formal definition of sacrilege in the code of Justinian but the conception remains as wide.
At such competitions or Schulsingen judges were appointed, the so-called Merker, whose duty it was to criticize the competitors and note their offences against the rules of the Tabulatur.
To give a pecuniary guarantee to ensure payment of fines for offences committed by any one of their number, a provision made necessary by the fact that the whole clan acted collectively.
The Salic Law is pre-eminently a penal code, which shows the amount of the fines for various offences and crimes, and contains, besides, some civil law enactments, such as the famous chapter on succession to private property (de alode), which declares that daughters cannot inherit land.
The members of this ecclesiola in ecclesia pledged themselves "to join together in the Christian profession, to follow Christ the Lord as the righteousness of his people, to walk together in brotherly love, and in the duties of it, in subjection to Mr Glas as their overseer in the Lord, to observe the ordinance of the Lord's Supper once every month, to submit themselves to the Lord's law for removing offences," &c. (Matt.
The Highway Act of 1835 specified as offences for which the driver of a carriage on the public highway might be punished by a fine, in addition to any civil action that might be brought against him - riding upon the cart, or upon any horse drawing it, and not having some other person to guide it, unless there be some person driving it; negligence causing damage to person or goods being conveyed on the highway; quitting his cart, or leaving control of the horses, or leaving the cart so as to be an obstruction on the highway; not having the owner's name painted up; refusing to give the same; and not keeping on the left or near side of the road, when meeting any other carriage or horse.
In statutes dealing with offences connected with the highway, such as gaming, negligence of carriers, &c., "highway" includes navigable rivers.
Other Zulu chiefs were convicted of various offences and sentenced to imprisonment.
One of the most important provisions was that the punishment for different offences was definitely fixed, instead of being left to the discretion of the judge before whom a case was tried.
St Basil, for example, says: "I accept also the holy apostles, prophets and martyrs, and I call upon them for their intercession to God, that by them, that is by their mediation, the good God may be propitious to me, and that I may be granted redemption for my offences" (Epist.
So far as regards criminal offences, the maxim as to ignorantia juris admits of no exception, even in the case of a foreigner temporarily in England, who is likely to be ignorant of English law.