Commonly among the terrestrial forms there is a gizzard, or two gizzards, or a larger number, in the oesophageal region.
The alimentary canal is simple and a gizzard or oesophageal diverticula rarely developed.
In the latter a pallial siphon, a welldeveloped proboscis and an unpaired oesophageal gland are always present, in the former they are usually absent.
Oesophageal pouches present; pedal nerve-centres concentrated; a pedal penis near the right tentacle.
D, Oesophageal ganglion connected with the buccal.
On account of the shortness of the visceral loop and the proximity of the right visceral ganglion to the oesophageal nerve-ring, the nerve to the osphradium and olfactory ganglion is very long.
A special " sympathetic " system arises by paired nerves from the oesophageal connectives; these nerves unite, and send back a median recurrent nerve associated with ganglia on the gullet and crop, whence proceed cords to various parts of the digestive system.
Oe, Gullet; op, optic nerve; sb, sub-oesophageal ganglion; mn, mx, mx', nerves to jaws; t, tentorium.
The nervous system of the embryonic head exhibits three ganglionic masses, anterior to the thoracic ganglionic masses; these three masses subsequently amalgamate and form the sub-oesophageal ganglion, which supplies the trophal segments.
In front of the three masses that will form the sub-oesophageal ganglion the mass of cells that is to form the nervous system is very large, and projects on each side; this anterior or " brain " mass consists of three lobes (the prot-, deut-, and tritencephalon of Viallanes and others), each of which might be thought to represent a segmental ganglion.
These three divisions subsequently form the supra-oesophageal ganglion or brain proper.
No other intermediate stages have as yet been noticed between this arrangement and that of the Heteronemertini, in which a separate posterior brain-lobe receives a similar ciliated canal, and in which the oesophageal outgrowths have made their appearance and are coalesced with the nerve-tissue in the organ of the adult animal.
These posterior brain-lobes, which in all Heteronemertines are in direct continuity of tissue with the upper pair of principal lobes, cease to have this intimate connexion in the Metanemertini; and, although still constituted of (I) a ciliated duct, opening out externally, (2) nervous tissue surrounding it, and (3) histological elements distinctly different from the nervous, and most probably directly derived from the oesophageal outgrowths, they are nevertheless here no longer constantly situated behind the upper brain-lobes and directly connected with them, but are found sometimes behind, sometimes beside and sometimes before the brain-lobes.
18, in the Heteronemertines the lateral stems, while entirely uniform all through the posterior portion of the body, no longer individually exist in the oesophageal region, but here dissolve themselves into a network of vascular spaces surrounding this portion of the digestive tract.
Lateral nerve; 21, oesophageal nerve; 22, mouth; 23, ventral ganglion of brain; 24, dorsal ganglion of brain; 25, rhynchodaeum.
The nervous system is represented by an oesophageal collar and a suboesophageal ganglion, whence paired nerves pass outwards to innervate the anterior extremity and backwards towards its posterior end.
Sub-oesophageal nerve ganglion.
These spaces are as follows: - (i.) the great arm-sinus; (ii.) the small arm-sinus together with the central sinus and the peri-oesophageal sinus, and in Discinisca and Lingula, and, to a less extent, in Crania, the lip-sinus; (iii.) certain portions of the general body cavity which in Crania are separated off and contain muscles, &c.; (iv.) the cavity of the stalk when such exists.
This sinus is continued round the oesophagus as the peri-oesophageal sinus, and thus the whole complex of the small arm-sinus has the relations of the so-called vascular system of a Sipunculid.
Places it has sunk into the con Passing from the middle line outwards they are - (i.) the median pallial nerve to the middle of the dorsal mantle; (ii.) numerous small nerves - the circum-oesophageal commissures - which pass round the oesophagus to the chief arm-nerve or supra-oesophageal ganglion; (iii.) the under arm-nerve to the lophophore and its muscles; (iv.) the lateral pallial nerve to the sides of the dorsal mantle.
Laterally, the sub-oesophageal ganglia give off (v.) nerves to the ventral mantle, and finally they supply (vi.) branches to the various muscles.
In Discinisca and Lingula, however, the sub-oesophageal ganglion is not drawn out, but lies medianly; it gives off two posteriorly directed nerves to the stalk, which in Lingula unite and form a substantial nerve.
Sub-oesophageal portion of the while in Cistella (?
Blochmann, the immensely long drawn out supra-oesophageal ganglion.
Medianly, it has its origin in the sub-oesophageal ganglion, which, like the supra-oesophageal, is drawn out laterally, though not to the same extent.
In the middle line the sub-oesophageal nerve mass is small; the ganglion is in fact drawn out into two halves placed on either side of the body.
From each of these sub-oesophageal ganglia numerous nerves arise.
The mouth leads at once into the true digestive cavity, divisible into an oesophageal region in the manubrium and a more dilated cavity, the stomach (st.), occupying the centre of the umbrella.
In the failure of previous g, ovary; k, kidney; m, mouth; n, supra morphologists to adapt oesophageal ganglion; nr, nerve ring in the details of developsection.
Enamel-folds; the stomach has a large glandular mass situated to, the right of the oesophageal orifice; the anal and urino-genital.
There is a welldeveloped brain dorsal, to the mouth; this gives off a pair of oesophageal commissures, which surround the oesophagus and unite in a median ventral nerve-cord which runs between the longitudinal muscles to the posterior end of the body.
B, Oesophageal bulb.
As regards their innervation an apparent exception is found in the case of A pus, where the nerves to the antennules arise, behind the brain, from the oesophageal commissures, but this is, no doubt, a secondary condition, and the nerve-fibres have been traced forwards to centres within the brain.
In the primitive Phyllopoda, and less distinctly in some other orders, the nerves supplying the antennae arise, not from the brain, but from the circum-oesophageal commissures, and even in those cases where the nerves and the ganglia in which they are rooted have been moved forwards to the brain, the transverse commissure of the ganglia can still be traced, running behind the oesophagus.
The central nervous system is constructed on the same general plan as in the other Arthropoda, consisting of a supra-oesophageal ganglionic mass or brain, united by circumoesophageal connectives with a double ventral chain of segmentally arranged ganglia.
The brain, or supra-oesophageal ganglion, shows various degrees of complexity.
The centres for the antennal nerves form ganglionic swellings on the oesophageal connectives.