Three Oecumenical Conferences have been held - two at City Road, London, in and 1901, and one at Washington in 1891.
Articles 6 and 7 forbade access of any Italian official or agent to the above-mentioned palaces or to any eventual conclave or oecumenical council without special authorization from the pope, conclave Or council.
The first trace of system is in the limited right of appeal given by the first oecumenical council of Nicaea and its provision that episcopal sentences or those of provincial synods on appeal were to be recognized throughout the world.
The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.
No oecumenical synod has tried a patriarch of Old Rome while yet in the flesh.
The fifth oecumenical council came nearest to so doing, in the case of Vigilius.
The sixth oecumenical synod decreed that the dead pope Honorius should be " cast out from the holy Catholic Church of God " and anathematized, a sentence approved by the reigning pope Leo II.
And affirmed by the seventh oecumenical synod in 787.
The Church of Cyprus has been autocephalous since at any rate the oecumenical synod of Ephesus in 431.
The monophysite monks appealed to his authority, but could not prevent Justinian and the fifth oecumenical council at Constantinople (553) from anathematizing his teaching.
The public meetings of the great oecumenical council (1431-1449) were held in the choir, while the committees sat in the chapter-house.
Of the acts of the great oecumenical council.
As such he presided, in October 379, over the great synod of Antioch, in which the dogmatic agreement of East and West was established; it was he who helped Gregory of Nazianzus to the see of Constantinople and consecrated him; it was he who presided over the second oecumenical council at Constantinople in 381.
During this time the council of Basel, though abandoned by Cesarini and most of its members, persisted none the less, under the presidency of Cardinal Aleman, in affirming its oecumenical character.
Negotiations for this purpose were to take place at the oecumenical council which had been summoned to meet at Basel on the 3rd of March 1431.
In time, however, the word council came to be restricted to oecumenical gatherings, while synod was applied to meetings of the eastern or western branches of the Church (the first council of Constantinople was originally a mere council or synod of the East), or to councils of the Reformed churches, e.g.
Provincial synods were held in the 2nd century, and were not completely organized before the advent of oecumenical councils.
King Louis thereupon proposed an oecumenical Pisa council so as to create a schism in the Church, and (1510).
They reject the Third Oecumenical Council, and though showing the greatest devotion to the Blessed Virgin, deny her the title of Theotokos, i.e.
Not to change any doctrines held by them which are not contrary to that faith which the Holy Spirit, speaking through the Oecumenical Councils of the Undivided Church of Christ, has taught us as necessary to be believed by all Christians, but to strengthen an ancient Church, at the earnest request of the Catholicos, and with the knowledge and blessing of the Catholic patriarch of Antioch, one of the four patriarchs of the Holy Orthodox Eastern Church, and occupant of the Apostolic See from which the Church of the East revolted at the time of Nestorius."
The authorship of Dionysius was doubted by many of the early middleage commentators and grammarians, and in modern times its origin has been attributed to the oecumenical college founded by Constantine the Great, which continued in existence till 730.
It was during his pontificate that the 6th oecumenical council was held at Constantinople, to which he sent his legates and those from a Roman council held in 679.
- The three creeds which may be called oecumenical, although the measure of their acceptance by the universal church has not been uniform, represent three distinct types provided for the use of the catechumen, the communicant, and the church teacher respectively.
Bindley, The Oecumenical Documents of the Faith (London, 1906); J.
The objects originally contemplated had been the restoration of the unity of the church and its reform in head and members; but so great had become the prominence of Bohemian affairs that to these also a first place in the programme of the approaching oecumenical assembly required to be assigned, and for their satisfactory settlement the presence of Huss was necessary.
In spite of the perpetuation of all the old abuses and the continual appearance of new devices for increasing the papal revenue; in spite of the jealousy of kings and princes, the attacks of legists and the preaching of the heretics; in spite of seventy years of exile from the holy city, forty years of distracting schism and discord, and thirty years of conflict with stately oecumenical councils deliberating in the name of the Holy Spirit and intent upon permanently limiting the papal prerogatives; in spite of the unworthy conduct of some of those who ascended the papal throne, their flagrant political ambitions, and their greed; in spite of the spread of knowledge, old and new, the development of historical criticism, and philosophical speculation; in spite, in short, of every danger which could threaten the papal monarchy, it was still intact when Leo X.
The situation was, however, complicated by the strife which broke out between the pope (Eugenius IV.) and the oecumenical council of Basel.
The first Methodist Oecumenical Conference was held in London in 1881, the second in Washington in 1891, the third in London in 1901, the fourth being fixed for Toronto in 1911.
It was only under quite exceptional circumstances that any need was felt for oecumenical decisions.
In his capacity as head of the church, " and president of the Christian agape," as St Ignatius of Antioch would have said, the pope was considered to be the supreme president and moderator of the oecumenical assemblies.
This took place at the fist oecumenical council, which was convened in Nicaea in 3 25.
A synod of bishops, monks and doctors meets regularly to transact under his eye the business of the convent and the oecumenical affairs of the church; but its decisions are subject to the veto of a Russian procurator.
FEAST OF THE ASCENSION, one of the oecumenical festivals of the Christian Church, ranking in solemnity with those of Christmas, of Easter and of Pentecost.
On the eve of the assembly of the Oecumenical Council at Rome Menabrea reserved to the Italian government its right in respect of any measures directed against Italian institutions.
After a good deal of trimming (for he desired to stand well with his own clergy, who were strongly orthodox, as well as with the court), he prepared another document, the Constitutum ad Imperatorem, which was laid before the so-called fifth "oecumenical" council in 553, and led to his condemnation by the majority of that body, some say even to his banishment.
The great bulk of the Christian population belongs to the Orthodox Church, of which the oecumenical patriarch at Constantinople is the nominal head, having precedence over all other ecclesiastical dignitaries.
Hence the pope, as supreme in matters of doctrine, possesses the same authority and the same infallibility as the whole Church; as legislator and judge he possesses the same power as the episcopal body gathered around and with him in oecumenical council.
PHANARIOTES, a name derived from Phanar, the chief Greek quarter at Stamboul, where the oecumenical patriarchate is situated, and applied to those members of families resident in the Phanar quarter who between the years 1711 and 1821 were appointed hospodars of the Danubian principalities; that period of Moldo-Wallachian history is also usually termed the Phanariote epoch.
In March 1179 Alexander held the third Lateran synod, a brilliant assemblage, reckoned by the Roman church as the eleventh oecumenical council; its acts embody several of the pope's proposals for the betterment of the condition of the church, among them the present law requiring that no one may be elected pope without the votes of two-thirds of the cardinals.
He is supreme, and not amenable to any of his brother patriarchs, but is within the jurisdiction of an oecumenical synod.
These controversies will be best described by reference to the oecumenical councils of the ancient and undivided church.
431), the third oecumenical, had insisted upon applying the term Theotokos to the Virgin Mary, and this was repeated in the symbol of Chalcedon, which says that Christ was born of the Virgin Mary, the Theotokos, " according to the manhood."
The council of Chalcedon (451), the fourth oecumenical, declared that Christ is to be acknowledged " in two naturesunconfusedly, unchangeably," and therefore decided against the opinions of all who either believed that the divinity is the sole nature of Christ, or who, rejecting this, taught only one composite nature of Christ (one nature and one person, instead of two natures and one person).
The church in the sixth oecumenical council at Constantinople (680) declared that Christ had two wills.
The Roman Church, without the sanction of an oecumenical council and without consulting the Easterns, added " and the Son."
The Eastern creeds may thus be roughly placed in two classes - the oecumenical creeds of the early undivided church, and later testimonies defining the position of the Orthodox Church of the East with regard to the belief of the Roman Catholic and of Protestant Churches.
The Orthodox Greek Church adopts the doctrinal decisions of the seven oecumenical councils, together with the canons of the Concilium Quinisextum or second Trullan council (692); and they further hold that all these definitions and canons are simply explanations and enforcements of the Nicaeo-Constantinopolitan creed and the decrees of the first council of Nicaea.
Still, the Oecumenical Patriarch, as he has been called since early in the 6th century, is the most exalted ecclesiastic of the Eastern churches, and his influence reaches far outside the lands of the patriarchate.
The Patriarchate of Alexandria, consisting of Egypt and its dependencies, was at one time the most powerful, as it was the most centralized, of all, and the patriarch still preserves his ancient titles of " pope " and " father of fathers, pastor of pastors, archpriest of archpriests, thirteenth apostle, and oecumenical judge."
The Oecumenical Patriarch is, of course, officially the superior; but the Russian Church is numerically by far the greatest, and the tendency to regard Russia as the head, not only of the Slav races, but of all orthodox nations, inevitably reacts upon the church in the form of what has been called pan-Orthodoxy.
An oecumenical council (called by the Latins the 8th) was convoked at Constantinople to decide this matter.
The French vice-chancellor Guillaume de Nogaret was sent to arrest the pope, against whom grave charges had been brought, and bring him to France to be deposed by an oecumenical council.
Its independence was formally recognized by the oecumenical patriarch of Constantinople, in 1885.
The patriarch feared on the one hand that the growing influence of the Russian Church would give a colour of Slavism to the whole church, and that a Russian might eventually be appointed oecumenical patriarch at Constantinople, while the Rumanians hoped by means of the independence of their church to deprive the Russians of all excuse for interfering in their internal affairs under the pretext of religion.
600), deacon and professor at the oecumenical school at Constantinople.
In fact, whilst in the Eastern Church the metaphysical ardour of the Greeks was spending itself in terrible combats in the oecumenical councils over the interpretation of the Nicene Creed, the clergy of Gaul, more simple and strict in their faith, abjured these theological logomachies; from the first they had preferred action to criticism and had taken no part in the great controversy on free-will raised by Pelagius.
The persistent decisions of the councils against the heretics at this period - in particular, those of the council of Tours (1163) and of the oecumenical Lateran council (1179) - had scarcely more effect.