The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
The larger cities (St Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Sevastopol, KertchYenikala, Nikolayev, Rostov) have an administrative system of their own, independent of the governments; in these the.
(Yuriev or Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkov, Kiev, Moscow, Odessa, St Petersburg, Warsaw and Tomsk), with 19,400 students, 6 medical academies (one for women), 6 theological academies, 6 military academies, 5 philological institutes, 3 Eastern languages institutes,.
And S.; thus Odessa and Konigsberg are situated on the same winter isotherm of 28°; St Petersburg, Orel and the mouth of the Ural river on about 20°; and Mezen and Ufa on 9°.
Odessa) and the whole provinces was really prodigious.
In many towns most of the skilled labourers and a great many of the unskilled (for instance, the grain-porters at Odessa and elsewhere) are Jews.
Dubrovin, president of the Union of the Russian People and organizer of pogroms, having written a letter of congratulation to the tsar on the occasion of the coup d'etat, received a gracious reply; the hideous reign of terror of the " Black Hundred " in Odessa did not prevent the Grand-duke Constantine from accepting the badge of membership of the Union.
The town dates from 1780 and owes its rise to the granite quarries at Craignair and elsewhere in the vicinity, from which were derived the supplies used in the construction of the Thames Embankment, the docks at Odessa and Liverpool and other works.
Podolia is traversed by a railway which runs parallel to the Dniester, from Lemberg to Odessa, and has two branch lines, to Kiev (from Zhmerinka) and to Poltava (from Balta).
The left branch is appreciably noticed near Odessa and the north-west corner; the right branch sweeps past the Crimea, strikes the Caucasian shore (where it comes to the surface running across, but not into, the south-east corner of the Black Sea), and finally disperses flowing westwards along the northern coast of Asia Minor between Cape Jason and 1 The early Greek navigators gave it the epithet of axenus, i.e.
The secret organization, temporarily checked by Rhigas's arrest and execution in 1798, was revived at Odessa in 1814; it extended throughout Turkey, and in 1820 the insurrection took shape, a favourable opportunity being afforded by the outbreak of hostilities between Ali Pasha and the Porte.
During the winter of 1915 delegates of the Yugoslav Committee, with the Tsar's special permission, began enrolling volunteers from among the prisoners on the Russian front; and by March 1916 a division of 23,000 men had been concentrated at Odessa, and a second was formed later.
When the Turkish collapse came, he fled by way of Odessa to Germany.
From the Black Sea the Russian naval forces bombarded the Bosporus defences on March 28; some fruitless operations were then carried out against the "Goeben " and " Breslau " (in the course of which the Turkish cruiser " Medjidieh " was sunk off Odessa (April 3), and on April 25, the day of the landing in the Peninsula, and on May 2, the Bosporus defences were again shelled.
A Russian army destined for the Bosporus, which had been gathered near Odessa, obliging the Porte to keep strong bodies of troops about Constantinople, had been called to Galicia, thus liberating several Turkish divisions for service at the Dardanelles.
The harbour is too shallow to admit vessels of large size, but the proximity of the town to Odessa secures for it a thriving business in wine, salt, fish, wool and tallow.
Evangelides, `HpaKA€Fos o auroeparcop Bv avriov (Odessa, 1903); A.
The Gulf of Maine, Bay of Fundy, Bay of Odessa, Gulf of Martaban.
The failure in the history of the Gur Khan to meet all points in the story of the bishop of Gabala led Professor Bruun of Odessa to bring forward another candidate for identity with the original Prester John, in the person of the Georgian prince John Orbelian, the "sbasalar," or generalissimo under several kings of Georgia in that age.
The Jews and Armenians are engaged in a brisk trade with Odessa, to which they send corn, wine, spirits and timber, floated down from Galicia, as well as with the interior, to which they send manufactured wares imported from Austria.
KISHINEV (Kishlanow of the Moldavians),a town of south-west Russia, capital of the government of Bessarabia, situated on the right bank of the Byk, a tributary of the Dniester, and on the railway between Odessa and Jassy in Rumania, 120 m.
Miller) can equally enjoy a pond at Blackheath, and near Odessa live in water twice as salt as that of the ocean.
In the eleven years of his administration, Odessa rose from a miserable village to an important city.
The bulk of the leaf tea, however, now goes to Russia by direct steamers to Odessa instead of to London as formerly, and a large quantity goes overland via Tientsin and Siberia in the form of brick tea.
Of Odessa on the Balta-Kremenchug railway, and on the Ingul river, in 48° 31 N.
The town is regularly built, with wide streets, some of them lined with trees, and is a wealthy town, which has become an industrial centre for the region especially on account of its steam flour-mills, in which it is second only to Odessa, its distilleries, mechanical workshops, tobacco and tallow factories and brickworks.
Of Odessa, on a cape of the Black Sea, at the entrance to the estuary of the Dnieper, and opposite to Kinburn.
At a later date it became the centre of a Turkish province which included Khaji-dereh (Ovidiopol), Khaji-bey (Odessa), and Dubossary, as well as some 150 villages.
Another important line, connecting Danzig with Odessa, crosses Poland from north-west to south-east.
It possesses a tobacco factory, candle-works and brick-kilns, and is an important river port, vessels discharging here their cargoes of corn, wine, wool, cattle, flour and tallow, to be conveyed by land to Odessa and to Yassy in Rumania.
From its situation at the southern terminus of the navigable course of the Dnieper, and on the highway from Moscow to Odessa, it early acquired great commercial importance, and by 1655 it was a wealthy town.
Other articles of commerce are rye, rye-flour, wheat, oats and buckwheat, which are sent partly up the Dnieper to Pinsk, partly by land to Odessa and Berislav, but principally to Ekaterinoslav, on light boats floated down during the spring floods.
An outbreak at Odessa is supposed to have been brought from Constantinople, and thence to have passed to Transylvania.
Moldavia, Wallachia and Bessarabia were widely affected; the disease broke out also in Odessa and the Crimea, and isolated cases occurred in Transylvania.
In 1831 another epidemic occurred in Constantinople and Roumelia; in 1837 again in Roumelia and in Odessa - its last appearance in these regions, and the last on the European continent except an isolated outbreak in Dalmatia in 1840, and one in Constantinople in 1841.4 The plague-epidemics in Egypt between 1833 and 1845 are very important in the history of plague, since the disease was almost for the first time scientifically studied in its home by skilled European physicians, chiefly French.
Osterman and the proposed Partition of Turkey (Rus.) (Odessa, 1889); Hon.
Owing to its situation on the navigable river Don and at the junction of three railways, radiating to north-western Russia, Caucasia and the Volga respectively, Rostov has become the chief seaport of south-eastern Russia, being second in importance on the Black Sea to Odessa only.
Von Stern, Theodosia (German and Russian, Odessa, 1906); E.
After completing his studies at Odessa University, in the faculty of mathematics and physical science, and devoting some time to journalism in close relations with the Slavophils and M.
Katkov, he entered in 1877 the service of the Odessa State railway, and so distinguished himself in the transport operations necessitated by the Turkish campaign of 18 771878, that he was soon afterwards appointed general traffic manager of the South-Western railway of Russia and member of an Imperial commission which had to study the whole question of railway construction and management throughout the empire.
Three branches of the railway from Odessa to Poland penetrate the government and proceed towards the Carpathians.
Its importance was greatly impaired by the rise of Odessa and Taganrog; and in 1820 the fortress was dismantled.
Telfer, The Crimea (London, 5876); P. Bruhn, Tchernomore, 1852-1877 (Odessa, 1878); Gilles, Antiquites du Bosphore Cimmerien (1854); D.
It is an important junction of the railways from Vilna to Odessa and from Orel to Poland, and is in steamer communication with Kiev and Mogilev.
ODESSA, one of the most important seaports of Russia, ranking by its population and foreign trade after St Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw.
Odessa is the seaport for the basins of two great rivers of Russia, the Dnieper, with its tributary the Bug, and the Dniester (20 m.
Odessa experiences the influence of the continental climate of the neighbouring steppes; its winters are cold (the average temperature for January being 23.2° F., and the isotherm for the entire season that of Konigsberg), its summers are hot (72.8° in July), and the yearly average temperature is 48.5°.
The general aspect of Odessa is that of a wealthy westEuropean city.
The central square is adorned with a statue of Armand, duc de Richelieu (1826), who was governor of Odessa in 1803-1814.
Odessa consists (i.) of the city proper, containing the old fort (now a quarantine establishment) and surrounded by a boulevard, where was formerly a wall marking the limits of the free port; (ii.) of the suburbs Novaya and Peresyp, extending northward along the lower shore of the bay; and (iii.) of Moldavanka to the south-west.
Odessa is rising in repute as a summer sea-bathing resort, and its mud-baths (from the mud of the limans or lagoons) are considered to be efficacious in cases of rheumatism, gout, nervous affections and skin diseases.
Odessa is the real capital, intellectual and commercial, of so-called Novorossia, or New Russia, which includes the governments of Bessarabia and Kherson.
Commercially the city is the chief seaport of Russia for exports, which in favourable years are twice as high as those of St Petersburg, while as regards the value of the imports Odessa is second only to the northern capital.
The bay of Odessa was colonized by Greeks at a very early period, and their ports - Istrianorum Portus and Isiacorum Portus on the shores of the bay, and Odessus at the mouth of the Tiligul Liman - carried on a lively trade with the neighbouring steppes.
In the 14th century this region belonged to the Lithuanians, and in 1396 Olgerd, prince of Lithuania, defeated in battle three Tatar chiefs, one of whom, Khaji Beg or Bey, had recently founded, at the place now occupied by Odessa, a fort which received his name.
In 1803 Odessa became the chief town of a separate municipal district or captaincy, the first captain being Armand, duc de Richelieu, who did very much for the development of the young city and its improvement as a seaport.
In 1824 Odessa became the seat of the governors-general of Novorossia and Bessarabia.
During the politico-religious agitation which preceded the establishment of the Bulgarian exarchate in 1870, a number of Bulgarian youths were sent to Russia to be educated at the expense of the Imperial government; among them was Stambolov, who was entered at the seminary of Odessa in order to prepare for the priesthood.
PROSKUROV, or Ploskurov, a town of Russia, in the government of Podolia, situated on the railway from Odessa to Lemberg, 62 m.
His new brethren gave him letters to the Kiev and Odessa Masons and promised to write to him and guide him in his new activity.